Towards Effective Environmental Education

green-hope-uaeChildren are the "Future Generation" and their engagement in environmental conservation is an absolute must. Education is the key to fostering this engagement and hence , all efforts must be made in this regard. One of the main reasons for the current state of environmental degradation is the general apathy of civil society and the only way to address this issue is through intrinsic involvement of all stakeholders, in particular, children,  since it is their future that is at stake.

Involvement of children in environmental conservation initiatives will also ensure that the movement becomes "bottom-up" rather than something that is mandated by legislation — this "bottom-up" approach has always been seen to be more effective in terms of implementation.

Towards Effective Environmental Education

In order to be effective, environmental education needs to be both formally and informally imparted. Otherwise it ceases to be attractive and loses its effect. It becomes just another textbook one has to read and answer questions on. Children are inherently creative and the environmental education curriculum must try to build on this creativity. Rather than prescribing solutions, it must seek to obtain the answers from the children. After all, it is their future that is being decided upon.

Once this fundamental truth is understood, children will come forward with their views and actions to mitigate the environmental challenges. To be effective, environmental education needs to be imparted outside the four walls of the classroom. However, the weather in the Middle East, for most part of the year, is hardly conducive to outdoor activities and this should to be taken into account.

A beach cleanup campaign by Green Hope

A beach cleanup campaign by Green Hope

Green Hope – A Shining Example

My youth organisation, Green Hope, engages and educates young people through our "Environment Academies" which are tailor-made workshops on environmental issues. Till date, we have interacted with several hundred school and university students following all curriculum — our attendees are from all nationalities including native students. I have found them to be immensely concerned and motivated on environmental issues. Being from the region, they also have a lot of traditional knowledge about adapting to the natural environment which is a learning for those who have recently moved here. 

Education for Sustainable Development: Key Challenges

education-for-sustainable-developmentThe basic aim of 'Education for Sustainable Development' is to nurture an individual who is capable to solve environmental challenges facing the world and to promote the formation of a sustainable society. The first challenge is to have an ethos in schools that openly and enthusiastically supports the development of ESD (Education for Sustainable Development). This is partly down to the curriculum the school follows, but is mainly as a result of the interest and effort shown by senior management in promoting integration and whole school engagement; a critical element being teacher training. It is also down to the expectations that are put upon schools by education authorities when it comes to ESD.

With trained and motivated teachers, it is far easier to inspire and motivate students. Teachers can often use the environment as a vehicle for teaching certain concepts in their own specific subject. Once teachers have decided that this is something they feel is worthwhile, they will increasingly find ways to do so.

Using environmental issues in student learning shows students the bigger picture, which can significantly improve motivation. By letting pupils know why the work they are completing is important, and showing them where it fits in on a local and global scale, you’re enabling them to see its value.

Another challenge is being able to bridge the gap between what happens at home and what is taught in schools. For example, if a child is learning about recycling at school, but parents are not open to supporting their learning by adopting recycling practices at home, then the child, especially at a young age, receives very conflicting messages.

Schools are busy places and there are increasing pressures on teachers within the workplace. These can create additional challenges such as gaps between awareness and understanding; motivation to and knowledge of how to become more sustainable; individual to collective empowerment; finding time; budget restraints; linking infrastructure change to mind set change and whole community engagement.

However, with a more directed focus and commitment towards ESD in schools, children generally need very little motivation to care for their environment. You just have to give them a voice and they are away! The problem often comes from adults not understanding the bigger picture about caring for the long term future of the planet.

Strategy for GCC Countries

When it comes to educating locals and expats in the GCC, it can be categorized into three parts:

The physical change: looking at how schools, households and businesses can reduce their waste, water and energy and focus on more sustainable resources in general.

The mind set change: this is all about raising environmental understanding, awareness and action programmes throughout the school and business communities through workshops, cross-curricular activities and presentations, so that everybody is on the 'same page', as well as giving students and employees a voice. This leads to a fundamental change in attitudes and the choices people make.

Learning to respect others and appreciate the environment, as well as giving back to society: this is focused around the opportunities to learn beyond the workplace and home, and connect back to nature, as well as help communities in need. In a nutshell, it about being more caring.

Partnerships and action orientated behaviour within all 3 parts are crucially important to their success. Environmental awareness in itself is not enough, simply because awareness without leading to meaningful action and behaviour change goes nowhere.

Using environmental issues in student learning shows children the bigger picture

Using environmental issues in student learning shows children the bigger picture

This approach can be illustrated in the Beyond COP21 Symposium series that I am currently running globally with the support of Eco-Schools. The event consists of themed high impact presentations from, and discussions with, guest speakers on the SDGs Agenda 2030 and climate negotiations in and beyond Paris; individual & community action; pledge- making and practical activities/workshops.

Local sustainable companies and organisations are invited to showcase their initiatives and engage with students from a variety of schools, both local and expat, in each city or region. Successfully run in Dubai twice and with an upcoming event in Jordan, the Middle East region has certainly embraced the partnership approach when it comes to supporting environmental education initiatives that benefit all those involved.

Role of Technology and Social Media

The greatest role it can play is through the spread of information and ideas, as well as the sharing of good practice within the GCC. Sometimes the hardest thing is to know where to start and how to become motivated, and certainly both can help. Also technology can help to source important resources for teachers. Bee’ah’s School of Environment, which I have been recently developing new online resources for, is a very good example of how well this can work.

Please visit my website http://www.target4green.com for more information about my organization and its activities.

The Concept of Environmental Education

Unlike traditional forms of education, Environmental Education is a holistic, lifelong learning process directed at creating responsible individuals who explore and identify environmental issues, engage in problem solving, and take action effectively to improve the environment. As a result, individuals develop a deeper awareness and understanding of environmental issues and have effective skills to make informed and responsible decisions that lead to resolute the environmental challenges.

Environmental Education is neither environmental advocacy nor environmental information; rather, Environmental Education is a varied and diverse field that focuses on the educational process that has to remain neutral by teaching individuals critical thinking and enhancing their own problem-solving and decision-making skills in a participatory approach. The guiding principles of Environmental Education include awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and participation.

Environmental Education can be taught formally in schools classrooms, colleges and universities, or it can take place in informal learning contexts through NGOs, businesses, and the media, natural centers, botanic gardens, bird-watching canoeing, and scuba diving. Besides, Environmental Education takes place in various non-formal education programs such as experiential outdoor education, workshops, outreach programs and community education.

Environmental educator should deliver Environmental Education in a unique way as it is not only based on science, but also concerned with historical, political, and cultural aspects with the human dimension of socio-economic factors. It is also based on developing knowledge on socio-ecological systems.

Environmental Education provides opportunities to kids to build skills, including problem-solving and investigation skills. Qualified environmental educators should work in the field, conducting programs, involving and collaborating with local communities, and using strategies to link the environmental awareness, building skills, and responsible action. It is through Environmental Education that citizens, especially children, can test various aspects of an issue to make informed, science-based, non-biased, and responsible decisions.

Environmental Education in Islam

Islam considers seeking knowledge as an obligation. Islam teaches its followers to keep streets clean, to help animals and any living being, prohibits the pollution of water, prohibits cutting down a fruitful tree and preserves the components of the environment. Islam also sets legislation for cultivating land and benefiting from it. Additionally, Islam has strict teachings to prevent environmental deterioration caused by industrial development, urbanization, poverty etc. Islam organizes the relationship between humans and nature where it calls for its protection and enrichment through a comprehensive educational process. Islamic teachings in preserving environmental components hold the sense of responsibility and sensitivity. Such teachings were extraordinary at a time when the environment was not suffering the pressures it is suffering nowadays.

Environmental Education in Jordan

As far as Jordan is concerned, National Environmental Education efforts remain largely focused on programs organized by NGOs. For example, JREDS is a Jordanian NGO which became the national organization for the Foundation for Environmental Education. JREDS is implementing three international eco-labeling programs – Green Key, Blue Flag and Eco-SchoolsRSCN is another Jordanian NGO that designed Environmental Education programs to improve peoples’ general understanding and awareness of environmental issues. Activities of nature protection organizations have been instrumental in fostering significant cultural change.

Environmentally-literate citizens take active part in solving and reducing the impact of environmental problems by buying "green" products and using natural alternatives to pesticides to name two. However, the success of environmental programs adopted by NGOs will be difficult to sustain for future generations without continuing Environmental Education.

Eco-literacy Outlook for Jordan

Jordan has typically centralized education system where teachers aren't consulted about curricula. School curricula are mono-disciplinary, making interdisciplinary learning hard to apply. Despite environmental topics incorporation into curricula recently, still it is fragmentary. Jordan has a long way to go before a national strategy of environmental education can be totally implemented in its educational system.

Jordan should employ a holistic Environmental Education program adopting sustainable development principles, and presenting green ideas that perceive handling the environmental issues as important target and offers various solutions to different environmental problems which has become a national scourge. Ministry of Education should merge the eco-traditional knowledge effectively with leadership due to the link between the two, and empower the youth to participate in solving their own environmental problems as well as affecting the actions of public towards the desired goal, which is participating in solving the grim reality of environmental problems in the country. The scientific community should also get involved in public relations efforts that enable communication of its research, in effective and understandable ways, to the organizations responsible for education.

Additionally, Jordan should adopt a holistic approach of zero-emission eco-schools throughout the country, eco-schools that relies entirely on renewables for their energy supply and be completely self-sustaining. The design shall adopt Earth building and be constructed out of locally sourced materials, while the geothermal energy will cool and heat it.  Furthermore, school garden and cleaning routines will use the harvested rainwater. Such an eco-school model, hold a bright future where students will eventually have access to a bright green education thereby facilitating a sustainable future.

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التغيرالمناخي و الكوارث الطبيعية

climatechange-healthترتبط العديد من الكوارث الطبيعية مباشرة مع تغير المناخ بما فيها الفيضانات والأعاصير و موجات الحر والجفاف و حرائق الغابات والعواصف . وقد أودت مثل هذه الكوارث بحياة أكثر من 600,000 في العقدين الماضيين . تكرر و حجم هذه الكوارث في تزايد مع مرور الوقت و بدون استقرار حتى مع وجود خطط للحد من انبعاث الغازات المسببة للاحتباس الحراري (غازات الدفيئة ) و التوقيع على اتفاقية التغير المناخي في باريس.

سجل مكتب الأمم المتحدة للحد من مخاطر الكواثر, بمتوسط ​​335 كارثة متعلقة بالطقس بين عامي 2005 و 2014 ، أي بزيادة قدرها 14 ٪ مقارنة بين1995-2004 ، و تقريبا ضعف المستوى سجل خلال-1985 1995,  ووفقا للتقرير ، فقد أصيب 4.1 مليار نسمة  بلا مأوى أو كانوا في حاجة إلى مساعدة طارئة نتيجة للكوارث المرتبطة بالطقس بين عامي 1995-2015. حيث وقعت حوالي 332,000 حالة وفاة و تضرر 3.7 مليار شخص في آسيا وحدها. هذه الأرقام مقلقة و فتحت العين علينا جميعا لنفهم و لنستجيب لهذه المشكلة الملحة استنادا للفيضانات والعواصف وقد شكلت النسبة الاعلى في الوفيات الناجمة عن الكوارث الطبيعية المرتبطة بالطقس .

و وفقا للبيانات، شكلت الفيضانات 47 ٪ من جميع الكوارث المتعلقة بالطقس من1995-2015, مما أدى بالضرر  على 2.3 مليار نسمة وبوفاة 157,000شخص. حيث تعد العواصف إحدى اخطر أنواع الكوارث المرتبطة بالطقس ، وهو ما يمثل 242,000 حالة وفاة أو 40 ٪ من الوفيات الناجمة عن الأحوال الجوية العالمية ، مع 89 ٪ من هذه الوفيات تحدث في الدول ذات الدخل المنخفض.

درجات الحرارة القصوى نتيجة لظاهرة الاحتباس الحراري الناجمة عن مقتل حوالي164,000  نسمة، منهم 148,000 حالة وفاة حوالي 92 ٪ ، وقد تسبب بسبب موجات الحر . حدثت  90٪ من الوفيات الناجمة عن موجات الحر في أوروبا وحدها . في روسيا ، قتل أكثر من 55,000  شخص نتيجة لموجة الحر في عام 2010 ، حيث بلغت الوفيات 70,000 في عام 2003 في أوروبا .

و وفقا للبنك الدولي: "النقاط الساخنة من الكوارث الطبيعية : لتحليل المخاطر العالمية " تقرير صدر في مارس 2015 ، حيث وضح أن أكثر من 160 دولة لديها زيادة في عدد سكانها أكثر من الربع و بذلك احتمالية عدد الوفيات في تزايد بسبب الكوارث الطبيعية. شهد العقد الأول من القرن21،حوالي 3,496 من الكوارث الطبيعية شملت الفيضانات والعواصف, الجفاف و موجات الحر.

وفقا لمنظمة  العالمية للأرصاد الجوية ، فإن العالم معرضاً للخطر و الكوارث بما يقارب 5 أضعاف كما كان في 1970, بسبب المخاطر المتزايدة التي جلبها التغير المناخي. في العقد الماضي ارتفعت تكلفة الكوارث إلىbn 864 $, لذا نحن بحاجة إلى فهم أن التغيرات المناخية المنتشرة ليست موحدة في جميع أنحاء العالم. و من المتوقع ان يرتفع مستوى البحر في البلدان القريبة  خط الاستواء بنسبة 10-15%, و في المناطق المنخفضة و الساحلية و الجزر الصغيرة مثل البحرين. فإن ارتفاع درجات الحرارة يتسبب في مزيد من الجفاف والفيضانات و ارتفاع مستوى سطح البحر ، والإجهاد الحراري ، والمزيد من استهلاك المياه ، والمزيد من متطلبات الطاقة و التبريد و انتشار الأمراض التي تنقلها المياه مثل الكوليرا و الإسهال. وهكذا, فإنه يؤثر علينا جميعا بغض النظر عن موقعنا والمكانة.

البحرين تفهم موقفها ، و اتخذت سباقاً تخطيط وتصميم للجهود المبذولة لمعالجة هذه المشكلة العالمية من خلال الاستثمار في البنى التحتية ، واستصلاح الآمن و إعداد خطط إدارة الكوارث لمواجهة الكوارث و تهديداتها . وقد حان وقت كل فرد ليبني عادات بيئية سليمة, و الحفاظ على الموارد الطبيعية المحدودة.

ترجمة

بدرية الكيومي/ تخصص علوم بيئية, عضو في جمعية البيئة العمانية

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Environmental Education: Key to a Better Future

environmental-educationTomorrow's leaders need to be equipped for tomorrow's challenges, and we must adequately prepare our children for the future they will inherit. As climate change is being felt across the globe and its long term catastrophic impacts have never been so scientifically clear, environmental education is the key to a better future. In an era where more and more children are disconnected from nature, we should recognize the importance of making a real investment in environmental education and outdoor learning. Studies have shown environmental education engages students in learning, raising test scores, and encouraging youth to pursue career in environmental and natural resources. And not only that: environmental education can help children perform better in social studies, science, language, arts, and mathematics.

Engagement at Different Levels

The secret to environmental education is to act at different levels, engaging the entire school and addressing students, teachers, parents, administrators and all members of the schools community. Eventually, it will link up all the participants within the community. The components of this initiative depend on interaction and participation, with teachers undertaking a guiding role by encouraging students to discover solutions on their own.

At first students should determine and check the extent of their use of natural resources in the school. Through this, they evaluate their efforts in the field of environmental management. 

As a second step, children should set up and run Eco Clubs. Eco Clubs provide an opportunity to students to participate in environmental projects and activities. They also serve as a forum through which the students share environmental problems, along with the school staff, parents and the community surrounding the school, in order to work on finding solutions, and promote a positive environmental behavior. In this component the schools can implement internal and external projects, such as introducing efficient methods of irrigation, lowering the volume of waste, reducing the consumption of electricity and water and trying to reduce air pollution.

The third step focuses on organizing training courses for teachers and releasing educational resources in different themes and curricula, helping them to teach environmental concepts in innovative ways and through various educational materials. This will help teachers to adapt and to provide students with information about different habitats, biodiversity, climate change and other issues faced at the local level, as well as faced by the planet on a global level.

The final step should be to connect students to environmental causes and issues, and identify solutions through the provision of field trips. Additionally, such trips can be associated with the educational curriculum as they offer direct learning method. This helps boosting the understanding of various concepts by the students, and increasing the chance of using multiple senses such as eyesight, hearing, etc., which helps to raise their capacity to understand what they have learned. The success and engagement of schools to take on the environment field trips is great and extensive and it represents a set full of amazing adventures of exploration and knowledge.

Undoubtedly, the final and greatest outcome is to educate our children on the importance of becoming good environmental citizens.

Challenges in the Middle East

The Middle East region faces difficult natural conditions, and it is clear that steep population growth, poverty and the consequent degradation of natural ecosystems make it a priority when it comes to Environmental awareness and sustainability goals. One of the biggest challenges is certainly the lack of awareness. 

Most countries are blessed with high levels of education, with a large portion of the population pursuing secondary and higher education. Unfortunately however, human development and wealth are not always synonym with high environmental awareness and interest in sustainability issues… Jordan and Lebanon, for example, have their primary focus in tourism, which mostly contributes to their GDPs.

An interesting survey conducted in the Sultanate of Oman revealed that the environmental awareness of the Omani public was related to education level but also to gender and age. Males were found to have a higher level of knowledge about environmental issues than females. Males were also more environmentally concerned and tended to engage in more environmental behaviors than females. Younger and more educated respondents tended to be more knowledgeable and concerned about the environment than older and less educated respondents.

Eco Clubs provide an opportunity to students to participate in environmental projects and activities.

Eco Clubs provide an opportunity to students to participate in environmental projects and activities.

Another challenge that countries such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar are faced with, is trying to reduce their consumption patterns. Even though awareness levels seem to be higher than in other countries, these nations are notorious for their unsustainable consumption rates. For instance, KSA and the UAE’s water consumption have reached 265 and 550 liters per capita per day respectively, which significantly exceeds the world’s average. 

Participation of Emirati Youth

Educating the UAE youth and preparing them to lead the country’s sustainable future is the first goal in the UAE national environmental awareness strategy and the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment encourages the youth to innovate and be part of global environmental efforts.

Recently the UAE has taken a major step including environmental education in all schools: back in November Thani Ahmad Al Zeyoudi, Minister of Climate Change and Environment, announced that awareness of climate change and how to help save the environment will be taught in classrooms across the country.

Under plans to tweak schools' curriculum to include learning on sustainability, schoolchildren will also be shown how to take energy-saving measures. These include schoolchildren of all ages, including in private sector schools, learning the importance of turning off lights and air-conditioning when not in use, and how to use less water. Each pupil will also be encouraged to spread the message to their family and friends. One of these initiatives, called Sustainable Schools, is an extension of a program that started in Abu Dhabi in 2009.

As a consequence to all these efforts taken by the government, I observed an increase in the numbers of UAE nationals volunteers participating in our programs: we've usually had a majority of Indians and Europeans taking part in our tree planting events or in the anti-pollution awareness drives, but lately large groups of young Emiratis have come forward to participate actively in all our programs and we continue to receive many emails asking to become long term volunteers. This is one of the biggest achievements we could wish for the UAE.

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أسلوب حياة أخضر

green-lifestyle-arabicتبني "أسلوب حياة أخضر" هو محاولة لترشيد استغلال الفرد أو المجتمع للموارد الطبيعية عن طريق تغيير أساليب النقل واستهلاك الطاقة، واستخدام المياه وغيرها. ويعنى أسلوب الحياة الأخضر بتلبية الاحتياجات البيئية والاجتماعية، والاقتصادية الحالية دون المساس بقدرة الأجيال المقبلة على تلبية احتياجاتها. ويعد انخفاض حجم البصمة البيئية أو الكربونية هو النتيجة الطبيعية لأسلوب المعيشة المستدامة.

ويعتبر تلوث المياه، وتلوث التربة، وتلوث الهواء، والتخلص من النفايات والمحافظة على الموارد الطبيعية، وحماية الحياة البرية من التحديات البيئية الرئيسية التي تواجه البشرية. ولكلٍ منا دور يمكن أن يلعبه لتحقيق الاستدامة، وذلك من خلال تبني أسلوب حياة خضراء. وفيما يلي بعض النصائح التي يمكن أن تساعد في خلق بيئة صحية لك ولعائلتك، وللأرض كذلك:

  1. اتبع/ي التسلسل الهرمي للتعامل مع النفايات: يمكن تحقيق ذلك من خلال التدرج ابتداءً من تقليل الاستهلاك، ثم إعادة الاستخدام ثم إعادة تدوير ما تبقى.
  2. جرب/ي تغيير استخدام الاشياء: وذلك بتحويل النفايات إلى مواد أو منتجات ذات جودة أو قيمة أعلى من السلعة الأصلية، على سبيل المثال تحويل كيس من البلاستيك إلى بطانة داخلية لحاويات القمامة أو تحويل عبوة بلاستيكية إلى حاضنة بذور.
  3. حول/ي المواد العضوية إلى سماد: حيث يمكن انتاج السماد بتخمير المواد العضوية لإضافة المواد المغذية لتربة حديقة المنزل وتقليل نفاياتك المنزلية في نفس الوقت.
  4. أعد/أعيدي استخدام المياه: على الرغم من أهمية المياه كمورد لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه إلا أن محدوديتها تقضي بضرورة تدويرها و إعادة استخدامها؛ كاستخدام المياه الرمادية -بعد معالجتها -في نظام التدفق في المراحيض، وفي ري الحدائق. كما يوفر تجميع مياه الأمطار مصدرا اخر من المياه ذات النوعية الجيدة.
  5. بادر/ي بترشيد استخدام الطاقة: تعتبر الطاقة هي القوة الدافعة للتنمية، ويمكن القيام ببعض الممارسات للتقليل من هدرها كإطفاء أجهزة الكمبيوتر ليلاً، واستبدال المصابيح بتلك الموفرة للطاقة وتجنب وضع الأجهزة في وضع الاستعداد في حال عدم الحاجة لها.
  6. أعد/أعيدي التفكير في حاجتك للمياه المعبأة في عبوات بلاستيكية: لابد أن نتنبه إلى أن عبوات المياه البلاستيكية تستغرق آلاف السنين لتتحلل.لذا من الأجدر الاستغناء عنها بعبوة قابلة لإعادة الاستخدام.
  7. حاول/ي إعادة تدوير الهواتف المحمولة القديمة: يتم الاستغناء عن مئات الملايين من الهواتف المحمولة في كل عام مما يتسبب بإدخال العديد من المواد السامة إلى الأنظمة البيئية، في حال التخلص منها في مكبات النفايات المنزلية. هناك العديد من المشاريع التي تقوم بإعادة تدوير الهواتف ,أغلبها لتمويل مبادرات نبيلة.
  8. أعد/أعيدي تدوير الألومنيوم والزجاج: يمكن انتاج عشرين علبة ألمنيوم معاد تدويرها بنفس كمية الطاقة اللازمة لتصنيع علبة واحدة جديدة. وبالمثل، فإن كل طن من الزجاج المعاد تدويره يوفر ما يعادل تسعة غالونات من زيت الوقود اللازم لصنع الزجاج من المواد الخام.
  9. تجنب/ي استخدام الأكياس البلاستيكية: يتم استهلاك حوالي تريليون كيس في جميع أنحاء العالم كل عام مما يتسبب بأضرار عديدة في الأنظمة البيئية. ويمكن الاستعاضة بأكياس القماش القابلة للتحلل والتي يمكن إعادة استخدامها.
  10. نمي الأفكار: المعيشة المستدامة ليست مهمة صعبة المنال. يمكن لأشياء بسيطة، مثل زرع شجرة، أن تحدث فرقا ملموسا.

 

green_living_middle-east

ترجمه

سمر طه

يوسف بنغزواني

 

البصمة البيئية لقطر

لا يزال الأثر البيئي لقطر مصدرا للقلق. وفقا ل“تقرير الكوكب الحي” 2014 الذي أعده الصندوق العالمي للحياة البرية (WWF)، فإن معدل البصمة البيئية للفرد في قطر هو الآن ثاني أعلى المعدلات في العالم، شأنها شأن دول خلجية أخرى، و تفوقت الكويت، لتصبح أسوأ "الجناة" من بين  ال 152 دولة التي تم قياس بصمتها البيئية. وتأتي دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة في المركز الثالث في القائمة، أما المملكة العربية السعودية، أكبر منتج للنفط في العالم، فتحتل المركز ال33. و بمقارنة البصمة الإجمالية مع القدرة البيولوجية للكوكب – قدرته على توليد إمدادات مستمرة من الموارد المتجددة واستيعاب النفايات – فقد خلص التقرير، استنادا إلى بيانات عام 2010،  إلى أن متوسط البصمة البشرية للفرد يتجاوز قدرة الكوكب بمقدار 1.5. هذا وتتجاوز البصمة البيئية في معظم بلدان" منطقة "الشرق الأوسط وشمال أفريقيا"، القدرة البيولوجية من حيث ترتيبها عالميا.

یبلغ معدل البصمة البيئية لقطر، والذي يعبَّر عنه بوحدة الهكتارات العالمية (global hectares/gha) ، 8.5 ثاني أعلى معدل في العالم، غير أنه یظل أقل من المعدل 11.6 المسجل في تقرير عام 2012. فقط وحدها الكويت التي سجلت أسوأ النتائج، ببصمة بلغت قيمتها 10gha . ووفقا لتقرير WWF، فإنه إذا كان لكل الناس على هذا الكوكب بصمة مقيم عادي في قطر، فإننا سنكون في حاجة إلى 4.8 كوكبا. في حين أنه إذا كنا نعيش نمط حياة مقيم نموذجي بالولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، فإننا سنكون في حاجة إلى 3.9 كوكبا. أما إذا كنا نعيش نمط حياة مقيم نموذجي بجنوب أفريقيا أو الأرجنتين فحاجتنا ستكون إلى 1.4 أو 1.5 كوكبا على التوالي. لقد كان متوسط البصمة في العالم للفرد الواحد يساوي  2.6 هكتار عالمي ، إلا أن متوسط القدرة البيولوجية العالمية للشخص الواحد كان 1.7 هكتار عالمي في عام 2010. وهذا يعتمد على القدرة البيولوجية الإجمالية للأرض التي تقدر بحوالي 12 مليار هكتار عالمي، و التي تدعم بها جميع البشر و حوالي 10 مليون أو أكثر من الأنواع البرية.

ويعزي سلمان ظفر، مؤسس EcoMENA  ، وهي منظمة طوعية تعمل على تعزيز التنمية المستدامة في العالم العربي،  الوضع القطري إلى نقص في الوعي البيئي بين السكان المحليين، وأنماط الحياة المترفة والاعتماد القوي على الوقود الأحفوري. " لقد شكل التدفق الهائل للعمال من مختلف أنحاء العالم ضغطا كبيرا على الموارد الطبيعية المجهدة أصلا. و يضيف السيد سلمان بأن العمال المهاجرين، و الذين يشكلون جزءا كبيرا من السكان، يقيمون في البلاد لفترة محدودة من الوقت وبالتالي لا يكونون متحمسين بما فيه الكفاية للحفاظ على الموارد الطبيعية وحماية البيئة ". أما بالنسبة للكويت، وبحسب الخبير دائما ، فيمكن أن يعزى ارتفاع معدل البصمة البيئية إلى ازدهار صناعة  النفط والغاز بها، الزيادة في محطات تحلية المياه، وجود المئات من مدافن القمامة، الاستخدام المفرط للمياه والطاقة والسلع، وجود عدد ضخم من السكان المغتربين وغياب مبادرات ملموسة للحفاظ على البيئة.

معظم ال25 دولة التي  سُجِّلَ  بها أعلى قيم البصمة البيئية للفرد، كانت من الدول ذات الدخل المرتفع. و تقريبا في كل هذه الدول ، كان الكربون بمثابة العنصر الغالب في البصمة ، في حالة  قطر 70٪ . إذ بحسب تقرير WWF – في عام  1961، كان الكربون  وتحديدا  حرق الوقود الأحفوري، بمثابة العنصر المهيمن في البصمة  البشرية لأكثر من نصف قرن ، إذ كان يمثل 36٪ من من إجمالي البصمة ، ولكن بحلول عام 2010  ارتفعت هذه النسبة إلى 53 ٪. و في عام 2013، بلغ تركيز ثاني أكسيد الكربون في الغلاف الجوي فوق ماونا لوا في هاواي – موقع  أقدم محطة للقياس المستمر لثاني أكسيد الكربون في العالم – 400 جزءا في المليون لأول مرة منذ بدء القياسات في عام 1958. هذه  النسبة هي أعلى مما كانت عليه منذ أكثر من مليون سنة، هذا ويظهر علم المناخ المخاطر الرئيسية لتغيرغير مقبول في مثل هذه التركيزات. وعلاوة على ذلك ، فقد صنف عالميا عام 2014 العام الأكثر سخونة  منذ بدء القياسات، وتتوقع منظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية استمرار تصاعد  درجات الحرارة.

و قد جاء في التقرير أيضا أن عدد السكان في العالم  يزيد اليوم على 7.2 مليارا، وينمو بمعدل أسرع من التقديرات السابقة. ومن شأن التأثير المزدوج لتزايد عدد السكان وارتفاع معدل البصمة للفرد أن يضاعف الضغط البشري  على الموارد البيئية. كون الزراعة  تمثل 92٪ من بصمة المياه العالمية، فإن الاحتياجات المتزايدة  للإنسان من المياه، مع وجود  تهديدات تغير المناخ، من شأنها أن تفاقم ندرة المياه. هذا ويوضح المؤلفون أيضا على أن ، و على  المدى البعيد، لا يمكن  أن يؤخذ الماء على نحو مستدام من البحيرات وخزانات المياه الجوفية بمعدل يفوق قدرة تغذيتها. هذا وينتج عن تحلية مياه البحر إنتاج محلول ملحي (مع وجود تركيز عال جدا من الملح وأثار المواد الكيميائية  والمعادن)، و الذي يشكل تفريغه في البحر خطرا يهدد الحياة البحرية. من حيث التنوع البيولوجي، يبين التقرير انخفاضا عاما یقدر ب 52 ٪ ما بين عامي 1970 و 2010. إلا أن سرعة انخفاض العدد كانت كبيرة  بالنسبة لأنواع المياه العذبة (76 في المئة) بالمقارنة مع  أنواع المياه البحرية والبرية ( 39 ٪لكليهما).

فيما يتعلق بالقدرة البيولوجية لقطر،  تشكل مناطق الصيد 92٪ من المجموع، في حين أن البلاد تصنف في المرتبة 66 عالميا من حيث القدرة البيولوجية للفرد.على غرار دول الخليج الأخرى، فيمكن لقطر أن تتعامل مع العجز البيئي عن طريق استيراد المنتجات، وبالتالي استخدام الطاقة البيولوجية لدول أخرى؛ و/ أو باستخدام المشاعات العالمية، على سبيل المثال، عن طريق الإفراج عن انبعاثات ثاني أكسيد الكربون من حرق الوقود الأحفوري في الغلاف الجوي، يقول التقرير.

على الرغم من أن قطر  بدأت خططا لخفض قيمة بصمتها والعيش بصورة مستدامة نسبيا ، إلا أن آخرأرقام الشركة العامة القطرية للمياه للكهرباء (كهرماء) بخصوص الطلب على الكهرباء تظهر ارتفاعا بنسبة 12٪ عن العام السابق. مع أن هذا الارتفاع يتماشى مع النمو السكاني في البلاد، إلا أنه يعني أيضا أنه لم يكن هناك أي تخفيض في استهلاك الفرد من الكهرباء، و الذي يأتي في التصنيف بعد ال15 دولة الأولى في العالم. معدل استهلاك الماء للفرد لايزال هو أيضا واحدا من أعلى المعدلات في العالم.

الاعتماد الكبير لقطر على النفط والغاز، و سياسة الدعم في قطاع الماء و الكهرباء ، والكمية الهائلة من الطاقة اللازمة لتحلية المياه وتكييف الهواء ، كلها عومل تجعل من غير المرجح تحسن مكانة الفرد في البلاد من حيث البصمة البيئية  في وقت قريب، ولكن نظرا لصغر حجم البلاد فإن تأثيرها الكلي لا يزال صغيرا نسبيا.

ويعتبر سلمان شعبان من شركة إعادة تدوير المعادن  سبائك لاكي ستار التقرير فقط بمثابة تسليط للضوء على التطور السريع الحالي في قطر. " إذ ليس من العدل أن نستخلص أي استنتاجات في هذه المرحلة حيث هناك بناء، ونظام نقل وطفرة سكانية. أي مكان سيمر من خلال مثل هذا التطور السريع لابد أن يكون له في البداية تأثيرا على النظم الإ يكولوجية. و يضيف أيضا "يتوقع انخفاض تدريجي لبصمة الكربون بمجرد الانتهاء من مرحلة البناء والتنمية."ومع ذلك، فإنه تبقى لكل مقيم ومواطن  المسؤولية الأخلاقية في الحفاظ على الطاقة وحماية البيئة "،.و "يجب أن يكون إعادة التدوير جزءا أساسيا من  ثقافة كل أسرة".

ووفقا لسلمان ظفر، توفير التعليم البيئي للمستوى الأساسي، رفع الدعم عن قطاع الماء والطاقة، وممارسات الإدارة المستدامة للنفايات، القوانين الفعالة، ومشاركة أصحاب المصلحة الإلزامية هي بعض من التدابير التي قد تؤدي إلى تحسين السيناريو البيئي في دولة قطر.

على الرغم من أن التقرير يثيرالقلق للبعض، إلا  أنه يوضح أن العديد من الأفراد والمجتمعات والشركات والمدن والحكومات تنتهج أفضل الخيارات لحماية رأس المال الطبيعي وتقليل البصمة الخاصة بهم، مع الفوائد البيئية والاجتماعية والاقتصادية. ولكن بالنظر إلى أن هذه التقارير الشاملة تستند إلى بيانات قديمة بأربع سنوات ، فإن التغييرات الحالية ، سواء للأفضل أوالأسوأ سوف تتضح في المستقبل القريب

 

ترجمة

هند سلامة، حاصلة على شهادة الدكتوراة تخصص الكيمياءـ البيئة من كلية العلوم عين الشق جامعة الحسن الثاني ـ المغرب، عملت كمديرة مشاريع في عدة مؤسسات و أعمل حاليا كمستشارة مستقلة في مجال البيئة و التنمية المستدامة و مترجمة  ، هذا عدا عن مساهماتي في البرنامج التطوعي للأمم المتحدة  UNVو متطوعة أيضا مع EcoMENA

 

Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Guide to Green Camping in Bahrain

camp-sakhirThe winter camping season in Bahrain will start from 22nd October and campers will be flocking to Sakhir and adjacent areas especially during weekends. The five month camping season will be starting soon and will conclude in March 2017 with many governmental authorities managing and monitoring the camping activities to avoid occurring of any accident due to sensitivity of the area and to protect the natural environment. The camping areas have been marked and displayed for the people’s attention to book the location/ site and register their camps.

Camping is not only an outing and enjoyment but it also serve as a learning method of how to live close to the nature. Once we are enjoying the camping, we often forget and disregard the environment and mistreat it with our careless behavior.

The authorities like previous years have devised plans and programs and are creating awareness among the campers on safety and environmental concerns through media, notices, bill boards and banners. As per the rules, the campers are required to camp at least 150 meters away from any oil and gas fields and more than 50 meters away from the electricity voltage pylons and main roads to ensure their safety. This year, officials have ambitious plans to organize awareness campaigns to combat littering menace and imposing fines on violators.

The Supreme Camping Season Committee has asked the campers to camp in the allocated areas, register their camps and obtain camping label stressing that camps that are not registered or against the rules will be removed. The campers are asked to place the label in a clear and prominent place. Placing of fencing or installing signs, poles as well as afforestation work before the start of camping season are not allowed. The committee has also urged campers to maintain their safety by providing safety equipment in tents like a fire extinguisher and a first-aid kit, not to use open fires or stoves inside tents and provide an independent venue for the kitchen.

Campers are advised not to store any flammable materials in the camp in any form. Camps should be established away from slopes, to avoid damages due to rain and floods, mountain heights, restricted areas or pipes. Campers have been asked to maintain cleanliness of the camps by collecting garbage in bags and putting them in the allocated spots for garbage collection. Burning waste during or after the end of the camping season has also been prohibited. The committee also prohibited establishing buildings of brick or cement, putting barriers or tires in the camping sites. Barns are not allowed for any purpose. Keeping animals and hunting is also prohibited. The engagement in any action that would harm the environment and the wildlife is prohibited. It includes the destruction of trees, wild plants, leveling the ground etc.

Protection of the environment should be embedded in camping activities

Protection of the environment should be embedded in camping activities

The principle of green camping is “If you brought it in…. you need to take it out and leave the area just as you found it.” Let us follow some basic rules for our safety, health and environmental conservation at the camping sites.

  • Use minimum illumination and electronic gadgets.
  • Switch off all electricity appliances and instruments when not in use.
  • Use minimum water and turn off the taps after use.
  • Do not store any waste at site. Keep all recyclable and disposable waste in separate bags.
  • Avoid using disposable plates, cups, cutlery, dishes etc. Use reusable dishes and utensils and wash them after each use.
  • Don’t throw any food in open. It will attract vermin, birds, insects and rodents.

Let us be more environmental conscious and respect our resources while enjoying the camping season this year.

Concept of Garden in Islamic Culture

alhambra-gardenThe Arabic words Hadiqah, riyad, janna, raudah refer to the garden in its classical sense, with different nuances. The words bustan, munia, ruzafa, buhaira, 'ars refer to the large agricultural or leisure estates generally located on the periphery of towns. These terms and others go to show the diversity of meaning in the concept of garden in the Islamic culture.

In Islamic Culture, the garden is above all the essence of elements of Creation: Creation itself is a garden. This garden is at the heart of all the flowering Islamic civilization: beauty, mathematics, architecture, spirituality, poetry, botanic sensibility, hydraulics, biodiversity… But at the same time it also hides the secret of Islam, and all the gifts in this world and in the next: contemplation, peace, gratitude, conviviality, sensuality and including eternal rest.

Undeniably, the Islamic garden has been enriched by numerous influences over the centuries, especially those coming from the Nabatean and Persian civilisations. However, it is incorrect to think that the spiritual and conceptual nucleus of the Islamic garden is of foreign influence.

The Garden is above all the essence of elements of Creation

The Garden is above all the essence of elements of Creation

The presence of water, the fragrances, the shade, the fruits within reach of a hand and the pavilions of leisure offer more than just a charming visual spectacle. They transcend this: they offer a rich interpretation of The Sacred Book, the Prophetic traditions and the Sufi works.

There is no doubt that the idea of the garden as a representation of the spiritual garden or Paradise is not new. 2 700 AC the Babylonians described Paradise in the epic poem of Gilgamesh in this way: 'In these immortal gardens stands a tree… this tree is next to a sacred spring'.

It is also notable the symbolism of the garden in Genesis as synonymous with Paradise, although it was possibly the Persians who most nurtured spirituality in the garden, being as they were the forerunners of landscaping in the Islamic world. It is used in the same way in the Quran more than 120 times: 'Whoever obeys God and his Chosen One will be chosen to live in gardens beneath which flow rivers, and where they will live eternally' (Quran 4:13).

The Garden in capital letters is seen repeatedly in the Prophet's Sunnah. In a hadith the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) told: 'The greatest door to the Garden is the awareness of Allah and good character.'

However, the garden in its spiritual meaning is more than merely a recreation or imagination of the Garden of the Hereafter. It is associated with death, or eternal rest, as is apparent from the name given to a cemetery (rauda, one of the terms for garden). It also embodies the flowering of the human spirit, as seen in the word Raudiyah, or the discipline to educate the soul until it transforms into a fragrant garden which offers flowers and fruits.

For this reason it is not unusual for Muslims to use the term 'win the Garden' between themselves, referring to the spiritual wealth associated with seeking perfection in behaviour.

The Holy Quran: A New Ecological Paradigm

Among the world scriptures, the Holy Quran provides a unique resource for building a new ecological paradigm. Grounded in the Abrahamic tradition, it presents a harmonious view of nature reminiscent of the Far East. In the Quran, "whatsoever is the heavens and on the earth glorifies God" (59:1; 61:1; 62:1; 64:1). "The stars and the trees prostrate" (55:6), "the thunder hymns His praise" (13:13), and "unto God prostrates whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is on the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, and the beasts" (22:18). In these and many other verses, the whole of creation is presented as a Divine symphony, for "there is no thing, save that it hymns His praise, though you do not understand their praise. Truly He is Clement, Forgiving" (17:44).

Common Cause of Humanity

According to the latest results from the Pew Research Center, by 2050, over 60% of the world's population will be Christian or Muslim: 29.7% will be Muslim and 31.4% will be Christian. Muslims and Christians have no choice but to come together to work for the common cause of humanity in confronting this unprecedented challenge. Moreover, to take root in humanity any sustainable ecological worldview must incorporate and address the teachings that much of humanity seeks to follow. As Pope Francis observes, the solutions cannot come from science and technology alone.

The extinction of species and the eradication of pristine environments are like the removal of a section from this orchestra of which we are all a part. The Quran thus enjoins us to "walk not exultantly upon the earth" (17:63) and to view the whole of nature as "signs for a people who hear" (10:67; 16:65; 30:23), "signs for a people who reflect" (13:3; 30:21), and "signs for a people who understand" (2:164; 13:4; 16:12, 67; 30:24; 45:5). Yet, in our rapacious approach to nature, we have failed to reflect and thus become like those of whom the Quran says, "they have hearts with which they understand not; they have eyes with which they see not; and they have ears with which they hear not" (7:179). Unable to see, listen and understand, we have become like one of whom the Quran warns, "when he turns away [from God’s signs], he endeavors to work corruption upon the earth, and to destroy tillage and offspring" (2:205).

Relevance of the Papal Encyclical

Pope Francis' encyclical on the environment, Laudato Si ("Praised Be"), is a clarion call to all of humanity. It also provides an important opportunity to expand the conversation regarding the relationship between religion and the environment. Many scientists maintain that we have reached "decade zero" for addressing climate change. We thus have no choice but to mine the riches of all the world's traditions to create new paradigms and new solutions to environmental degradation. As the encyclical states, "We need a conversation which includes everyone, since the environmental challenge we are undergoing and its human roots, concern and affect us all."

The Papal Encyclical provides an unprecedented opportunity for the people of the world's faith traditions to turn away from the corruption we have wrought and open our hearts to one another and to the plea of Mother Nature. For her fate will be determined by the decisions of our generation. By drawing upon the shared teachings of our traditions, humanity can again learn to honor the immutable rights of rivers, animals and trees, as well as human beings suffering inhumane working conditions. By bearing witness of our own transgressions, we can reverse our course and ensure that the rights of God's creation prevail over the transient interests of corporations. As Pope Francis observes, we have no choice but to take this direction and to work with one another.

For Muslims and Christians, the place of human beings is not to subdue the earth. It is to hear the patterns already established within nature and live in harmony with them, had we but eyes to see and ears to hear. In both Christianity and Islam, human beings are presented as stewards of the earth. In the Quran, this responsibility is both an honor and a trial.

Verse 6:165 states, God it is Who appointed you stewards upon the earth and raised some of you by degrees above others, that He may try you in that which He has given you. From this perspective, being stewards of nature is about our responsibility toward God, not our dominion over creation. Neither the Bible nor the Quran has any place for what Pope Francis calls "a tyrannical anthropocentrism unconcerned for other creatures.

We will thus be held accountable for the degree to which we have carried out our function as stewards. As the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is reported to have said, "The world is a green and pleasant thing. God has made you stewards of it, and looks at how you behave."

Conclusion

Given the state of the environmental crisis and the alarming increase in environmental degradation, one cannot but conclude that contemporary humanity has failed this test. The world and our children can no longer afford the cost of our failures. It is thus time that people of all faiths unite and in the words of Martin Luther King, "rededicate ourselves to the long and bitter, but beautiful, struggle for a new world."

Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Women and the Environment in Arabia

Women and the environment are closely interlinked, throughout history, different nations glorified women as powerful symbols of nature, and nature has always been given the female characteristics: care, reproduction and life-giving. Nevertheless, women’s involvement in the preservation of the environment has seldom been recognized and documented in the histories of several nations.

One of the most significant phenomena in the last decades is recognition of women rights to achieve sustainable development; many international agreements reflected this recognition, including Rio Declaration in 1992, which stresses the point of the centrality of the full women participation to achieve environmental sustainability. The UN Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012 has acknowledged the importance of gender equality and women empowerment, the CBD identifies the integration of women right in biodiversity conservation as intrinsically vital. Linking gender equality and sustainable development is not only important for ethical and moral reasons, but also because achieving gender equality as human rights of women is prerequisite of a fair and sustainable globe and future.

Increasingly, achievement environmental sustainability is recognized as central to pursue development goals. It`s crucial that gender equality —a human right—is central to this pursuit. Worldwide, there is a perception that women are closer to nature than men, as women interact directly and more intensively with the natural surroundings more than their counterparts' men, which produced their profound experience, understanding and knowledge about the environment. Many studies on women and environment have shown that women are significant role player in natural resources management and ecological preservation. Women have served as farmers, water and firewood collectors and scientists with more respective and caring attitude.

The interesting dilemma about all is since women interact directly with the environment, and because of their roles as home-managers, they are often vulnerable to several environmental threats and hazards especially rural women in developing countries. The toxic environmental hazards may increase the risk of birth defects, abortion, perinatal death, and fetal growth retardation.

Women in Agriculture and Plant and Soil Conservation

Globally, women produce around half of all the grown food, women`s roles in agriculture include: planting, cultivation, production, weeding, distribution, harvesting and storage, women are also involved in animal farming such as rearing poultry and goat. Some examples of women role in agriculture in Arabia include rural women in the Jordan Valley, who have proved themselves in agricultural work and is now irreplaceable in various agricultural operations. In addition, women have participated in and led soil and plant conservation projects. A role model is the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) of Jordan, led by its founder HRH Princess Basma bint Ali. The RBG aims to preserve plants and ecosystems, and promote biodiversity research and environmental education in Jordan.

Women in Forest Management and Tree Planting                                                

In many areas of the Arab world, natural resources, such as firewood, are the main source of energy for domestic consumption. Unfortunately, the extensive use of these sources has led to forests degradation and air pollution. At the same time, women are the main contributor in forest management through planting and protection. A good example is the campaign organized by the APN, represented by its President Razan Zeater, which has planted more than two million trees in Jordan and Palestine.

Women and Water Resources

Around the Middle East, women constitute the main group of direct users of water for household consumptions. Therefore, they are a mainstream interest group in water management to provide and safeguard their own water resources. Women involvement in water management is growing up, but not yet receiving the attention it deserves. To fill the gap, many programs are launched to empower women at all levels including research. Dr. Malak AlNory, a scientist and a winner of Ibn Khaldun fellowship, researched the supply chain for water in Saudi Arabia and was the first Saudi woman presented her paper at the IDA Congress in 2013.

Women and Waste Management

Women role in waste management include garbage disposal management and research. Dr.Sumaya Abbas, a Bahraini engineer and a winner of L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women In Science Fellowship, works on waste management and waste transformation into energy. “Because oil and gas resources are depleting, we are looking at alternatives sources of energy, and waste is one of them ” she clarifies.

Women and Energy

Worldwide, many people lack access to modern, clean energy, which has a huge impact on general quality of life. Rural women devote much of their time as fuel gatherers. Additionally, women work on projects to produce energy. An excellent model is the Jordanian brave Bedouin Rafea, who decided to challenge gender roles in her Bedouin community and followed her aspirations to light up her underprivileged village by enrolling in a solar program in India. Rafea has not only become the first female solar engineer in Jordan, but she has also set up 80 small-scale solar systems, helping her village to become solar-powered. Today Rafea is a role model, an elected leader and training many others on how to use sustainable energy.

Women and Policy

There is growing evidence of the synergies between gender equality and environmental sustainability. While women participation is vital, their involvement in policy-making aimed at sustainability does not mean better gender equality, especially when the foundations of gender inequality remain unchanged. Governments and donor agencies target women as influential agents for green transformation.

However, such stereotypical assumptions which view women as “sustainability saviors” have risks, as it's based on the assumption that women are unlimited resource that can sustain environments without consideration of women’s health, time, knowledge, interests and opportunities. Thus, women’s involvement in policy-making focused only at sustainability doesn't mean better gender equality; on the contrary, increase of women’s already heavy unpaid work burdens without consideration of their benefits in advantage to the environment can worsen gender inequalities and power imbalances.

Conclusions

Despite the challenges, this is a time of great opportunity for Arab women.  Worldwide, there are many examples of alternative pathways that move towards environmental sustainability and gender equality synergistically, which means respect for women knowledge, capabilities and rights, while ensuring that roles are matched with rights, control over resources and decision-making power.

 

References

  1. Wuyep, Solomon Z. et al "Women Participation in Environmental Protection and Management: Lessons from Plateau State, Nigeria." American Journal of Environmental Protection, n.d. Web. 2014.
  2. Yalan, Zhu. Women’s Participation in Environmental Protection Organizations—A Qualitative Study of Australian Women’s Involvement in Green Non-Governmental Organizations. Diss. D the Graduate School of Beijing Foreign Studies U, 2007. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
  3. Chelala, Cesar. "Women's Role Key to Saving Environment." China Daily. N.p., 2011. Web. 27 July 2015.
  4. "Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: Making the Links." UNEP (n.d.): n. pag. Web. <http://www.unep.org/civilsociety/Portals/24105/documents/publications/Women%20and%20the%20environment/ChapterTwo.pdf>.
  5. The Environment and Women's Health (n.d.): n. pag. Web. <http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/environment-womens-health.pdf>.
  6. JACKSON, CECILE. "Doing What Comes Naturally? Women and Environment in Development." World Development. N.p., n.d. Web. http://josiah.berkeley.edu/2007Fall/ER275/Readings/DP3/jackson-GAD-1993.pdf.
  7. Schultz, . Irmgard.et al  "Research on Gender, the Environment and Sustainable Development." N.p., n.d. Web. <ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/eesd/docs/wp1_endversion_complete.pdf>.
  8. UN Documents. Beijing Platform for Action. Chapter IV. K. Women and the Environment, n.d. Web. 26 July 2013. http://www.un-documents.net/bpa-4-k.html
  9. "Gender and Sustainable Development." (2014): n. pag. The Research and Data Section of UN Women. Web..
  10. "Postural Synergies: Gender Equality, Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability." SpringerReference (2012): n. pag. UNDP. Web.
  11. "For Women, It's Personal." Water.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2015.
  12. "WEDO » NEW Article: "Women and Energy Access: Impact on Sustainable Development and Livelihoods"" WEDO RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2015
  13. "Sustainable Energy." (2010): n. pag" http://www.ashden.org/files/pdfs/reports/DFID-Energia-Ashden-Report-Public-Summary-Feb-2015.pdf"
  14. Rafea: Solar Mama. Dir. Jehane Noujaim and Mona Eldaief. Perf. Rafea, Rouf Dabbas, Um Bader. N.p., 2014. Web. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ON_NQ1HnRYs>.
  15. Sarant, Louise. "L'Oreal-UNESCO Recognises Exceptional Arab Women Scientists." – News. Nature Middle East, 9 Feb. 2013. Web. 31 July 2015. <http://www.natureasia.com/en/nmiddleeast/article/10.1038/nmiddleeast.2013.20>.
  16. http://ccwce.mit.edu/Ibn-Khaldun-Fellowship <2015>.
  17. www.rbg.org.jo

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الاسلام وحقوق الحيوان

جميع المخلوقات –البشر الطيور الحيوانات الحشرات وغيرها, هي كائنات تستحق الاهتمام والاحترام. ولانها جزء من خلق الله فدائما يشملها الاسلام في الحديث . الانسان هو دائما المسؤول عن كل الاحداث المحيطة  ومن ضمن تلك المسؤليات تواجد الحيوانات ومعيشتها, والتي كما ذكر القران لها حقوق لابد ان تصان وتحترم. قدم القران الكريم والاحاديث النبوية والتاريخ الاسلامي العديد من الامثله علي العطف والرحمة والشفقة للحيوان. فبالرجوع للاسلام نجد ان الحيوان جزء لا يتجزء من التسلسل الهرم للخلق ويوضح ايضا ان تواجد الحيوان وضمان استمراريته علي وجه الارض هو مسؤوليه الانسان.

الاسلام يطالب المسلمين بمعاملة الحيوان بالشفقة والعطف وليس الاستهان او التعدي عليه. ووضح القرآن ان الخلق جميعا من صنع الله حتي ما لم يدركه الانسان من مخلوقات اخري علي وجه الارض. وقد انتقد سيدنا محمد (صلي الله عليه وسلم) اتباعه عند الاساءه للحيوان وكثيرا ما حثهم علي اهمية العطف والشفقه بهم.

القران الكريم ورعاية الحيوان

يحوي القران الكريم العديد من الامثله والتوجهيات حول كيفية التعامل مع الحيوان. ووضح ان الحيوانات لها مجتمعات تماما مثل الانسان تعيش بها وتتكاثر.

فنجد في سورة الانعام الاية 38:

وَمَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّا أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۚ مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ.

وتصف الاية ان جميع الحيوانات تعيش بطريقة وضعها الله لهم في مجتمعات تحت طاعه الله وطاعه قوانين الله في الارض.

وفي سورة النور الايه 41:

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ. 

وفي سورة الرحمن الاية 10:

 وَالْأَرْضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلْأَنَامِ

ومفهوم الاية الكريمة ان الحيوانات وجميع المخلوقات بينها مشاعر ولغه اتصال روحاني للعالم المادي. ويجيب النظر الي عالمهم بنظره جديرة بالاهتمام والاحترام.

وفي الايه تذكير لنا بان الحياه البرية مثل حياه البشر. ويتم انشائها لهذا الغرض. ولديهم مشاعر يجب ان تحترم وتصان ولديهم الحق في الحياه والحماية من الاذي والمعاناه.

الاحاديث الشريفه التي تتناول حقوق الحيوان

نبينا محمد (صلي الله علية وسلم) حض المسلمين علي إظهار العطف والحنان تجاه الحيوان والطير. ومرارا وتكرار نهي عن القسوة تجاه الحيوان.

قال الألباني في "السلسلة الصحيحة" أن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قال:

(من رحم ولو ذبيحة عصفور رحمه الله يوم القيامة)

وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها, عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ( يا عائشة، إن الله رفيق يحب الرفق، ويعطى على الرفق ما لا يعطى على العنف، وما لا يعطى على ما سواه).رواه مسلم.

وايضا عن جرير عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : (من يحرم الرفق يحرم الخير). رواه مسلم.
وعن احترام الحيوان ومعاملته معاملة كريمة, عن سهل بن الحنظلية قال : (مر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ببعير قد لحق ظهره ببطنه، فقال:" اتقوا الله في هذه البهائم المعجمة، فاركبوها صالحة وكلوها صالحة)رواه أبو داود.

وهناك الكثير من الأحاديث التي حض فيها الرسول صلي الله عليه وسلم على عدم قتل الحيوان بدون سبب وعدم التمثيل به منهـــا:
(من قتل عصفورا عبثا" و عج إلى الله يوم القيامة يقول : يا رب إن فلانا" قتلني عبثا" ولم يقتلني منفعة), أخرجه النسائي وابن حيان في صحيحه.

و ايضا (لا تمثلوا بالبهائم , لعن الله من مثل بالحيوان) أخرجه الشيخان والنسائي عن ابن عمر وعبد الله بن جعفر.

وفيما يختص بالنهي عن الشريد والقتل, قد بين النبي- صلي الله عليه وسلم- ضوابط مشددة لقتل الحيوان. ففي الحديث الذي رواه أبو داود والنسائي وغيرهما من حديث شداد بن أوس قال: (خصلتان سمعتهما من رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم إن الله كتب الاحسان علي كل شئ فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة وإذا ذبحتم فاحسنوا الذبح وليحد احدكم شفرته وليرح ذبيحته).

وروي احمد وابن ماجة من حديث ابن عمر, قال: أمر رسول الله- صلي الله علية وسلم- بحد الشفار وان تواري البهائم اي لا تشاهد البهيمة اختها اثناء الذبح, وقال: إذا ذبح احدكم فليجهز.
ففي الصحيحين عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم( أن رجلا رأى كلبا يأكل الثرى من العطش فأخذ الرجل خفه فجعل يغرف له به حتى أرواه فشكر الله له فأدخله الجنة). وفي رواية: قالوا: يا رسول الله: وإن لنا في البهائم أجرا، قال: في كل كبد رطبة أجر.

ويحكي أن بينما الرسول صلي الله علية وسلم كان في رحلة مع بعض الشباب, وفي خلال غيابه ,ذهبوا اثنين من الشباب لعش الطير واخذوا الصغار من العش وكانت الطير الام تحلق فوق العش تبحث عن صغارها وتضرب بجناحيها من الحزن وعندما اتي الرسول قال" لقد اذيتم مشاعر هذا الطير عند اخذ صغارها منها, ردوا اليها الصغار, اخرجه مسلم.

وقد ادان الاسلام الصيد لغرض الرياضه والهواية . والصيد المباح للمسلمين هو الصيد لسد الاحتياج من الغذاء. وقد كان الصيد منتشر في عهد الرسول صل الله عليه وسلم, وكان يدينها من وقتا لاخر.

نقاط تستحق التفكير

وما يجب الالتفات اليه هو, هل المجتمع الاسلامي يقوم بالدفاع عن حقوق الحيوان بالرغم من صدور الاوامر السماويه من الله سبحانه وتعالي ومن نبيه المصطفي( صلي الله علية وسلم). وما هو دورنا في السعي لتحقيق هذا الغرض من الاهتمام والرعاية.  وليس فقط من باب النقاش والحوار , ولكن من باب الخطوات الفعلية لحماية الحيوان وحمايه البيئة المحيطة بصورة عامة. هل نحن محرومين من الحياه البريه؟ وكيف لقوانين البلد التي نعيش بها الوقوف علي المبادئ الاسلاميه؟ واخيرا, كيف يدعمنا الاسلام للوقوف امام العقبات والمشاكل التي تواجه مجتمعنا في الوقت الحالي. 

وليس من الصعوبه اطلاقا المطالبة باتخاذ موقف اكثر قوة لدعم وحماية العالم الطبيعي. فقد جاب بوليفيا العالم ليعطي الحيوان حقوقا مساوية لحقوق الانسان. وقام بوضع قانون الارض الام والذي تعين فيه احدي عشر حق للطبيعة, بما في ذلك:

" الحق في الحياه والوجود, الحق في متابعه دورة الحياه والعمليات الحيوية بعيدا عن اي تغير يطرأ من قبل الانسان, الحق في مياه وهواء نقي, الحق في التوازن, الحق في عدم التعرض لاذي او تلوث, الحق في عدم العبث بالصفات الوراثية او الجينية, وقد قامت الاكوادور بتعديل الدستور الخاص بالبلد لتعطي الحق للحياة البريه في التواجد.

وهذه القوانين تعتبر قوانين الطبيعه الفطريه, وهي لا تسعي للكثير, بالعكس فهي تحافظ وتحترم حقوق الحيوان من الرعاية بقدر ما هو متوقع منا في الاسلام. والحكومات والافراد لها دور هام في تثقيف العامه وإنشاء مؤسسات لدعم الرفق بالحيوان.

 

ترجمه:

هبة احمد مسلم- دكتور الهندسة البيئية. باحث في الشئون البيئية. معهد الدراسات والبحوث البيئيةجامعه عين شمس.

مدرس بالاكاديمية العربية للعلوم والتكنولوجيا والنقل البحري-  مصر.

التحكم في البيئة والطاقه داخل المباني.

هندسة الميكانيكة- وكيل محرك دويتس الالماني بمصر. 

للتواصل عبر hebamosalam2000@gmail.com

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