Concept of Energy Management

Energy management is the best solution for direct and immediate reduction of energy consumption. For the last few decades we have been exploring various alternatives to conventional sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass energy. However, due attention must also be given to best utilization of energy, improvement in energy efficiencies and optimum management of energy resources. Infact, energy management deals with already existing sources and actual consumption. It includes planning and operation of energy-related production and consumption units.

The main objectives of energy management are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings. The central task of energy management is to reduce costs for the provision of energy in buildings and facilities without compromising work processes. The simplest way to introduce energy management is the effective use of energy to maximize profit by minimizing costs. Energy management could save up to 70% of the energy consumption in a typical building or plant.

The typical energy saving for any plant or building, using basic energy management principles, could be 10-15% of the total consumption. This percentage may rose to 25-35% by a medium scale energy management program (1 – 3 year). For achieving higher degree of savings, a long-term energy management program, spread over a period of three years or more, is required which will involve a certain capital investment. The major elements of an energy management program are:

  • Set your goal: how much energy reduction do you want to achieve
  • Know your numbers: how much do you consume
  • Define major consumption units and try to reduce consumption
  • Continuous review and management

Basic Energy Savings Tips for Industries

  • Avoid extra-load in peak time. It is way more costly.
  • Turn off machines during shut downs, inspections, maintenance and when not in use.
  • Regular and efficient maintenance of machines and motors prevents extra loads and saves 15 % of extra consumption and prevents break downs as well.
  • Attend air and steam leakages. These leakages are extra load on boilers, compressors etc.
  • Replacement of incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) or LEDs can save significant amount of energy.

Our case study for energy management program was developed and implemented in textile industry which is second highest industrial energy consumer in Egypt. The program, involving minimum investment, was implemented over a period of one year and proved to be a major success. Direct energy savings were approximately one-fourth of the total consumption. More than one million Egyptian pounds were saved from direct costs, in addition to considerable indirect savings.

Conclusions

Energy management is the process of monitoring, controlling, and conserving energy in a building or an industry. Energy management is the key to saving energy in your organization. Energy management is an important energy resource that can help meet future energy needs while the nation concurrently develops new and low-carbon energy sources

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Food Security in the Middle East

Despite the fact that the Middle East is blessed with a rich geological inheritance of hydrocarbons and mineral resources, it is a water-scarce and arid region that has its share of demographic and socio-economic problems. It is difficult to grow food crops in the Middle East due to scarcity of water supply and limited availability of arable land. The region is highly vulnerable to fluctuations in international commodity markets because of heavy dependence on imported grains and food items.

According to a report issued in 2009 by the World Bank, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development, “Arab countries are the largest importers of cereal in the world. Most import at least 50% of the food calories they consume.” Countries like Egypt, Syria, or Iraq used to be breadbaskets in the recent past but their agricultural sectors have suffered a lot due to government mismanagement, price ceilings, and underinvestment. Infact, all Arab countries are net importers of grains, with small GCC countries like Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Kuwait, and Oman almost completely dependent on imports for grains.

The Middle East nations are encountering price spikes on world food markets. This is due to competition for the same food products (wheat, corn, soybeans, animal protein, etc.) from other areas of the world, especially Asia, where incomes are rising and demand for more and better calories is exploding. Besides threatening the well-being of those already living on meagre resources, the price hikes have increased the number of poverty-stricken by millions in less-affluent Middle East nations.

To make matters worse for the food supply problem, world markets have experienced severe disruptions in the past several years from distant storms, floods and droughts — from Russia to Argentina to Australia. These natural phenomena have disrupted the fabric of global market mechanisms that underlies the international food trade. Prices for basic food staples are already at socially dangerous levels, approaching or exceeding their 2008 peaks.

Of all the Middle Eastern countries facing the current food crisis, Yemen is in the worst shape. A United Nations’ World Food Programme report states that seven million of Yemen’s 21 million people are “acutely hungry”, making Yemen the 11th most insecure food country in the world. Aquifers are being pumped well beyond the rate of recharge, and the deeper fossil aquifers are also being rapidly depleted. As a result, water tables are falling throughout Yemen by some 2 meters per year. With water tables falling, the grain harvest has shrunk by one third over the last 40 years, while demand has continued to rise. As a result, Yemenis now import more than 80 percent of their grain.

In Saudi Arabia there is little farming without irrigation, which depends almost entirely on fossil aquifers. The desalted seawater used by Saudi Arabia to meet the ever-increasing water demand in cities is too costly for irrigation use. Saudi Arabia’s growing food insecurity has led it to buy or lease arable land in different countries, including world’s hungriest nations Ethiopia and Sudan. Infact, the Saudis are planning to produce food for themselves with the land and water resources of other countries to meet rising food demand of its rapidly growing population. Unfortunately, transferring agricultural land from subsistence farming to export crops has led to even more food shortages. By attempting to ensure their own food security by acquiring foreign farm holdings, affluent nations are creating new food shortages in other parts of the world.

Due to reduced flows of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, Iraq and Syria’s grain harvests have been hit badly. Given the future uncertainty of river water supplies, farmers in both countries are drilling and over-pumping more wells for irrigation. Syria’s grain harvest has fallen by one fifth since peaking at roughly 7 million tons in 2001. In Iraq, the grain harvest has fallen by one fourth since peaking at 4.5 million tons in 2002. Jordan, with 6 million people, is skating on thin ice agriculturally. Forty or so years ago, it was producing over 300,000 tons of grain per year. Today it produces only 60,000 tons and thus must import over 90 percent of its grain.

With fast growing populations and an ever increasing pressure on water resources, governments must act urgently to prevent the looming food crisis.  A recent World Bank report found great inefficiencies in many Arab ports and the ways that Arab countries store grain compared with other large wheat importers, such as the Netherlands and South Korea. Port facilities, slow customs service and inefficient transportation from the ports to the mills all contribute to the worsening food situation. Arab countries are going to be huge importers of food no matter what; therefore they should improve their port and storage facilities and manage import risks.

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Jatropha’s Relevance for MENA

Jatropha is a genus of nearly 175 species of shrubs, low-growing plants, and trees.  However, discussions of Jatropha as a biodiesel are actually means a particular species of the plant, Jatropha curcas. The plant is indigenous to parts of Central America, however it has spread to other tropical and subtropical regions in Africa and Asia.

Jatropha curcas is a perennial shrub that, on average, grows approximately three to five meters in height. It has smooth grey bark with large and pale green leaves. The plant produces flowers and fruits are produced in winter or throughout the year depending on temperature and soil moisture. The curcas fruit contains 37.5 percent shell and 62.5 percent seed.  Jatropha curcas can be grown from either seed or cutting.

By virtue of being a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, Jatropha has a high adaptability for thriving under a wide range of physiographic and climatic conditions. It is found to grow in all most all parts of the country up to an elevation 3000 feet. Jatropha is suitable for all soils including degraded and barren lands, and is a perennial occupying limited space and highly suitable for intercropping.

Extensive research has shown that Jatropha requires low water and fertilizer for cultivation, is not grazed by cattle or sheep, is pest resistant, is easily propagated, has a low gestation period, and has a high seed yield and oil content, and produces high protein manure. Sewage effluents provide a good source of water and nutrients for cultivating Jatropha, though there are some risk of salinization in arid regions.

Pongamia pinnata or Karanj is another promising non-edible oil seed plant that can be utilized for oil extraction for biofuels. The plant is a native of India and grows in dry places far in the interior and up to an elevation of 1000 meters. Pongamia plantation is not much known as like Jatropha, but the cost effectiveness of this plant makes it more preferred than other feedstock. Pongamia requires about four to five times lesser inputs and giver two to three times more yield than Jatropha which makes it quite suitable for small farmers. However, Pongamia seeds have about 5-10 percent less oil content than Jatropha and the plant requires longer period to grow as the gestation period is about 6-8 years for Pongamia against 3-5 years in Jatropha

To conclude, Jatropha can be successfully grown in arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) for biodiesel production. These energy crops are highly useful in preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand-dunes. The production of sewage-irrigated energy crops has good potential to secure additional water treatment and thus reduce adverse environmental impacts of sewage disposal. Countries in the Middle East, like Eqypt, Libya, Sudan, Jordan and Saudi Arabia, are well-suited to the growth of Jatropha plantations. Infact, Jatropha is already grown at limited scale in some Middle East countries, especially Egypt,  and tremendous potential exists for its commercial exploitation.

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Food Waste and the Spirit of Ramadan

iftar-party-food-wasteIn recent years, enormous generation of food waste during the holy month of Ramadan has been a matter of big debate in Muslim countries and elsewhere. As per conservative estimates, around one-fifth of the food purchased or prepared during Ramadan finds its way to garbage bins or landfills. This translates into thousands of tons of precious food which could have been used for feeding tens of millions of hungry people in impoverished countries of Asia, Africa and elsewhere. The staggering amount of food waste generation during Ramadan urgently demands a strong strategy for its minimization, sustainable utilization and eco-friendly disposal. 

Gravity of the Situation

Middle East nations are acknowledged as being the world’s top food wasters, and during Ramadan the situation takes a turn for the worse. The holy city of Makkah witnessed the generation of 5,000 tons of food residuals during the first three days of Ramadan in 2014. Around 500 tons of food is wasted in the United Arab Emirates during the holy month of Ramadan. In Bahrain, food waste generation in Bahrain exceeds 400 tons per day during the holy month. Same is the case with Qatar where almost half of the food prepared during Ramadan finds its way into garbage bins. The scenario in less-affluent Muslim countries like Malaysia, Indonesia, Egypt and Pakistan is not different. According to Malaysia’s government agency Solid Waste And Public Cleansing Management Corporation, more than 270,000 tons of food in thrown into garbage bins during Ramadan.

Needless to say, the amount of food waste generated in Ramadan is significantly higher than other months, as much as 25%. There is a chronic inclination of Muslims towards over-indulgence and lavishness in the holy month, even though the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) asked Muslims to adopt moderation in all walks of life. Socio-cultural attitudes and lavish lifestyles also play a major role in more food waste generation in Ramadan in almost all Muslim countries. High-income groups usually generate more food waste per capita when compared to less-affluent groups. In Muslim countries, hotels and restaurants are a big contributor of food wastes during Ramadan due to super-lavish buffets and extravagant Iftar parties.

The Way Forward

The foremost steps to reduce food wastage in Ramadan are behavioral change, increased public awareness, strong legislations, creation of food banks and community participation. Effective laws and mass sensitization campaigns are required to persuade the people to adopt waste minimization practices and implement sustainable lifestyles. Establishment of food banks in residential as well as commercial areas can be a very good way to utilize surplus food in a humane and ethical manner. Infact, food banks in countries like Egypt, India and Pakistan have been operating successfully, however there is a real need to have such initiatives on a mass-scale to tackle the menace of food waste.

Dubai has laid down new guidelines to cut food wastage and streamline the donation of excess food prepared at banquets and buffets. The "Heafz Al Na'amah" is a notable initiative to ensure that surplus food from hotels, Iftar parties and households is not wasted and reach the needy in safe and hygienic conditions.

Super-lavish buffets and extravagant Iftar parties are big contributors of food waste in Ramadan

Super-lavish buffets and extravagant Iftar parties are big contributors of food waste in Ramadan

During Ramadan 2015, Dubai Municipality launched an initiative called 'Smart Homes,' which will continue this year. The initiative encourages Dubai residents to reduce waste during the holy month. Smart Homes is a waste gathering technique in electronic containers that measures the amount of waste produced by each home. The initiative mainly targets residential areas dominated by Emirati residents due to their large family gatherings," he said. Homes that produce the least amount of waste during the holy month are rewarded with cash prizes and certificates that encourage them to reduce waste.

In addition to such initiatives, religious scholars and prayer-leaders can play a vital role in motivating Muslims to follow Islamic principles of sustainability, as mentioned in the Holy Quran and Hadith. The best way to reduce food waste during Ramadan is to feel solidarity towards millions and millions of people around the world who face enormous hardships in having a single meal each day.

Don’t Mess with Dahab – An Introduction

No matter where I were in the world right now, I'd be writing about the same problem – trash –  because it's not just the streets and shores of Dahab that are littered with rubbish. Travel to coastal cities around the world and you'll find many of the beaches in much the same state. Cairo and other places in Egypt are also dealing with their own problems of waste management.

There always seems to be a lot of talk about the obstacles we face in dealing with this problem: Garbage collection services provided by the city government are inefficient. Dumpsters are sparse and broken, causing the trash to be scattered along the road by the wind or hungry goats and sheep. The blame often gets laid on the people in charge of dealing with our trash; rarely do we take the blame ourselves.

It's time we stop for a moment and consider what we, as individuals, can do without the assistance of waste collection services, whether they are private or public. Because if there's one thing we can control, it's the amount of trash we each produce. If each of us “throws away” less rubbish, there will be less rubbish for the wind to blow around, less rubbish for the goats to scamper through, less rubbish finding its way into our seas and deserts, and less rubbish piling up in the streets waiting for someone to clean!

If you've participated in a clean-up event or had a closer look at the piles of rubbish lying around, you've probably realized that a lot of our trash is plastic. There are a lot of environmental and health problems associated with plastic and for the sake of humanity's well being, we cannot wait any longer to do something about the sheer amount of plastic polluting our earth.

Learning how to use less disposable plastic is something I've been working on personally for the past several years. Last year, I began writing the Don't Mess with Dahab blog to share with others what I've discovered. Now, I'll be contributing here on EcoMENA and I'll be sharing ways that each of us can reduce our use of disposable plastic. While I won't be able to suggest specific stores, restaurants, or companies like I do on Don't Mess with Dahab, I will be sharing ideas for alternatives to single-use plastic. I'll also discuss the different types of plastic, the problems associated with each, recyling plastics and more. As we'll see, these strategies will not only benefit the environment, but also your health and your wallet, as many of these tips will save you money.

It is my hope that my blogs will help us all become more aware, more responsible, and more pro-active when it comes to our personal health and the health of our environment.

And if you're wondering where the title of my blog, Don't Mess with Dahab, comes from, well, that's the Texan in my heart, who remembers with fondness the Don't Mess with Texas anti-litter campaign. Sponsored by the Texas Department of Transportation, the campaign was quite successful and over the years the phrase ingrained itself into Texan culture. It's a matter of pride. And while my blog is not focused on litter exactly, I called Texas home for 9 years of my life and the phrase Don't Mess with Texas still puts a smile on my face.

So let's all be proud of our home, native or adopted, wherever we are in the world and work towards making it a cleaner place!

Refuse ~ Reduce ~ Reuse ~ Recycle

 

WordPress Blog: http://dontmesswithdahab.wordpress.com/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/DontMessDahab

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Zero-Waste Kitchens and Low-Energy Cooking

Food is the single largest source of waste. Worldwide, we throw away about a third of our food. More food ends up in landfills than plastic or paper. The enormous amount of wasted food depends on our cooking and eating habits.  Generally, it is easy to be sitting at home, in front of your television, consuming whatever you want then throwing every‑thing in the trash. But have we ever thought, where does the garbage go?

Zero-Waste Kitchens

Given that most of the domestic waste originates in the kitchen, a green home should definitely include a zero-waste kitchen. Zero waste kitchens is not about recycling more of our kitchen waste from plastics containers, metal cans and glass jars. It is about acting on needless waste and stopping it from coming into our homes in first place. Bea Johnson  introduced the concept of the 5Rs in her book Zero Waste Home which are Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Rot. The first and the second R address the prevention of waste, the third R encourage thoughtful consumption while the fourth and fifth Rs are the last stage processing of discards.

The Egyptian cuisine is considered one of the most time consuming and tiring kitchens with a lot of organic wastes. On top of that it is not energy efficient because of long cooking time. A lot of initiatives in Egypt started to promote for the idea of zero waste food. They collect food leftovers and pack them nicely and give them to needy people. Other NGOs can come to your door step and take for example cooking oil. Some also pay for it as incentives to encourage people not to throw it away. Throwing oil is not only a waste but also cause blockage for the sewage system. Food waste can be transformed to several sources of energy like biogas and biodiesel or even can be transformed to liquid fertilizers and compost.

Low Energy Cooking

Every winter we notice an increase in demand for gas cylinders.  Gas consumption increase during winter season due to long cooking time to prepare warm meals. It is not only waste of energy but waste of time as well.  We can reduce cooking time by following some simple practical tips.

  • Marinate the meat that we will consume along the month or even a week and then freeze them. They will take less time when cooked grilled or baked.
  • Another simple tip that is often overlooked way to reduce cooking time. Cook items you eat often in bulk – such as beef, chicken, rice and beans, or pasta – and freeze the leftovers for later use. If you’re freezing cooked pasta, drizzle a little oil over it to prevent sticking when you defrost.
  • Always make essential food components in a large quantity and freeze them. Like chopped onions, garlic, tomato sauce, broth etc.
  • It is important to match the size of any pot or casserole you use on the stove top elements.
  • Turn the heat down to the lowest setting after reaching boiling point. Higher heat just escapes round the side of the pot or boils the liquid faster but doesn't cook its contents faster.
  • Optimize the use of a preheated oven by cooking several dishes, either at once, or in a row.
  • Don't turn on the oven too soon before using. Just a few minutes is enough for pre-heating.
  • Turn off the oven or stovetop a few minutes early. The residual heat will keep cooking the food.
  • Use pressure cooker. It uses less energy than standard cooking pans. Reduction ranges from 70% up to 90 % and consequently reduces cooking time.
  • Adding one spoon of vinegar on meat reduce cooking time because it makes it more tender.
  • Do not add salt till late in cooking. Salt increase cooking time when added to beef for example. Add salt only if you are boiling water, as it makes it quicker to reach boiling point.
  • When you use the blinder, mixer or food processor, use it once for adequate amount not every day for small amounts. Freeze the extra amount for another use.

To conclude, it is not difficult to have a zero waste kitchen and it is easy to transform your kitchen's trash into valuable cash. Cooking can also be enjoyable, quick and yet energy efficient. We need always to remember that zero-waste kitchen is not only a physical kitchen, but it is mainly a mindset and lifestyle. 

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Green Building Trends in the Middle East

Siemens-MasdarThe Middle East region faces a unique set of environmental and socio-economic challenges in the form of water scarcity, harsh climatic conditions, ecological degradation and abundance of fossil fuels. Commercial and residential buildings in the Middle East consume more energy than those in other parts of the world, mainly on account of extremely hot weather, rampant use of glass exteriors and heavy reliance on air-conditioning. The Middle East building industry, in recent years, is actively trying to make widespread use of eco-friendly architecture, traditional building methods and sustainable construction practices.

Some of the other drivers for the progress of green buildings sector in the Middle East are carbon-neutral buildings, self-sustaining urban planning and cultural sensitivity incorporating traditional Islamic architecture. Many countries in the region are increasingly promoting energy efficiency as a means to achieve energy security which has catalyzed the local green buildings industry. As far as social reasons are concerned, improved health and greater productivity are the top reasons for companies going green in their construction.

Trends in the Middle East

In recent years, green building design has emerged as a top priority in the Middle East. The number of LEED-registered buildings has increased rapidly across the region, from 623 in 2010 to more than 1400 in 2015. United Arab Emirates is leading the pack with almost two-third share, followed by Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Some of the prominent green buildings are Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (Masdar City), Climate Change Initiative Building (Dubai), Qatar National Convention Centre (Doha), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (Jeddah) and World Trade Center (Bahrain). Siemen’s headquarters in Masdar City has the distinction of being the first LEED Platinum-rated office building in the entire Middle East. Msheireb Downtown Doha is regarded as the world’s first sustainable community, with more than 100 buildings targeting LEED Gold and Platinum rating.

Infact, the UAE has the fourth-largest stock of LEED-certified buildings outside the US at 3.1 million sq. meters. UAE also has the distinction of having the fourth-largest number of LEED-accredited construction professionals worldwide. Sunanda Swain, a leading Dubai-based green buildings expert says that, “Presently, the UAE has total cumulative gross square meters (GSM) of LEED- certified and registered spaces of 53.44 million and the total number of LEED-certified and registered projects are 910 (in comparison to 710 by June 2014)”. She adds, “In Abu Dhabi, over 700,000 square meters of real estate are certified by the Urban Planning Council under Estidama sustainability standards.”

Regional countries, such as Qatar and UAE, have come up with their own building sustainability standards and building laws to incorporate socio-economic, environmental and cultural aspects in modern architecture. Infact, Qatar's Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS) is billed as the world's most comprehensive green building rating system while Abu Dhabi's Pearl Rating System (Estidama) and Dubai’s Green Building Regulations has swiftly carved a niche of its own in global green buildings sector. Green Building Councils in United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Egypt etc. are proactively working to popularize the concept of green buildings in their respective countries.

Conclusion

Green buildings can not only contribute towards environment protection in the Middle East but also bring lots of advantages to building occupants and users. Lower development costs, reduced operating costs, healthier indoor environment quality and less maintenance costs are hallmarks of major benefits associated with green buildings. To sum up, Green building technologies can serve as catalysts for smart urbanization in the Middle East, besides ensuring energy security, climate change mitigation, and opening new economic and job opportunities. 

Egypt’s Water Crisis – Recipe for Disaster

nile-pollutionEgypt has been suffering from severe water scarcity in recent years. Uneven water distribution, misuse of water resources and inefficient irrigation techniques are some of the major factors playing havoc with water security in the country. Egypt has only 20 cubic meters per person of internal renewable freshwater resources, and as a result the country relies heavily on the Nile River for its main source of water. The River Nile is the backbone of Egypt’s industrial and agricultural sector and is the primary source of drinking water for the population.

Rising populations and rapid economic development in the countries of the Nile Basin, pollution and environmental degradation are decreasing water availability in the country. Egypt is facing an annual water deficit of around 7 billion cubic metres. Infact, United Nations is already warning that Egypt could run out of water by the year 2025.

Let us have a close look at major factors affecting Egypt’s water security:

Population Explosion

Egypt’s population is mushrooming at an alarming rate and has increased by 41 percent since the early 1990s. Recent reports by the government suggest that around 4,700 newborns are added to the population every week, and future projections say that the population will grow from its current total of 92 million to 110 million by the year 2025. The rapid population increase multiplies the stress on Egypt’s water supply due to more water requirements for domestic consumption and increased use of irrigation water to meet higher food demands.

Inefficient Irrigation

Egypt receives less than 80 mm of rainfall a year, and only 6 percent of the country is arable and agricultural land, with the rest being desert. This leads to excessive watering and the use of wasteful irrigation techniques such as flood irrigation [an outdated method of irrigation where gallons of water are pumped over the crops]. Nowadays, Egypt’s irrigation network draws almost entirely from the Aswan High Dam, which regulates more than 18,000 miles of canals and sub-canals that push out into the country’s farmlands adjacent to the river. This system is highly inefficient, losing as much as 3 billion cubic meters of Nile water per year through evaporation and could be detrimental by not only intensifying water and water stress but also creating unemployment. A further decrease in water supply would lead to a decline in arable land available for agriculture, and with agriculture being the biggest employer of youth in Egypt, water scarcity could lead to increased unemployment levels.

Pollution

The pollution of river Nile is an issue that has been regularly underestimated. With so many people relying on the Nile for drinking, agricultural, and municipal use, the quality of that water should be of pivotal importance. The reality is that water of Nile is being polluted by municipal and industrial waste, with many recorded incidents of leakage of wastewater, the dumping of dead animal carcasses, and the release of chemical and hazardous industrial waste into the river.

River Nile is commonly used for dumping of household trash

River Nile is commonly used for dumping of household trash

Industrial waste has led to the presence of metals in the water which pose a significant risk not only on human health, but also on animal health and agricultural production. Fish die in large numbers from poisoning because of the high levels of ammonia and lead. Agricultural production quality and quantity has been affected by using untreated water for irrigation as the bacteria and the metals in the water affect the growth of the plant produce, especially in the Nile Delta where pollution is highest.

Sewage water from slums and many other areas in Cairo is discharged into the river untreated due to lack of water treatment plants. Agricultural runoffs frequently contain pollutants from pesticides and herbicides, which have negative effects on the river and the people using it. All of these factors combine together to make Nile a polluted river which may spell doom for the generations to come.

Regional Upheavals

Egypt controls majority of the water resource extracted from the Nile River due to colonial-era treaty, which guaranteed Egypt 90 percent share of the Nile, and prevented their neighbors from extracting even a single drop from the Nile without permission. However, in recent years countries along the Nile such as Ethiopia are taking advantage are gaining more control over the rights for the Nile.

A big challenge is tackling the issue of Ethiopia building a dam and hydroelectric plant upstream that may cut into Egypt’s share of the Nile. For some time a major concern for Egypt was Ethiopia’s construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) in the Blue Nile watershed, which is a main source of water for the Nile River. Construction of the Renaissance Dam started in December 2010, and has the capacity to store 74 to 79 billion cubic meters of water and generate 6,000 megawatts of electricity for Ethiopia a year. This creates major concern for Egypt, who is worried that this damn would decrease the amount of water it receives (55.5 billion cubic meters) from the Nile River. Egypt is concerned that during dry months, not enough water will be released from the GERD thus decreasing the water received downstream. This will greatly hinder Egypt’s attempts to alleviate the water shortages during those months.

Conclusions

Water availability issues in Egypt are rapidly assuming alarming proportions. By the year 2020, Egypt will be consuming 20 percent more water than it has. With its loosening grip on the Nile, water scarcity could endanger the country’s stability and regional dominance. It is imperative on the Egyptian government  and the entire population of to act swiftly and decisively to mitigate water scarcity, implement water conservation techniques and control water pollution develop plans that would install more efficient irrigation techniques, and control water pollution in order to avoid a disaster.

With climate conditions expected to get drier and heat waves expected to become more frequent in the MENA region, Egypt cannot afford to neglect the importance of water conservation anymore and must act immediately to augment its natural water reserves.

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أزمه المياه في مصر

تعاني مصر في السنوات الاخيرة من شح شديد في المياه و يعد توزيع المياه غير المتكافئ و اساءه استخدام موارد المياه وتقنيات الري غير الفعاله بعض العوامل الرئيسيه التي تلعب دورا مدمرا للأمن المائي فيالبلاد.

يعد نهر النيل شريان الحياة في مصر حيث  يغطي متطلبا ت الزراعة و الصناعه و هو المصدر الرئيسيلمياه الشرب للسكان. ان ارتفاع معدلات النمو السكاني و التنمية الاقتصادية السريعة  في دول حوض النيل  بالإضافة الى التلوث و التدهور  البيئي آخذُ باستنزاف الموارد المائية في مصر.

 و تواجه مصر   عجزا مائيا يقدر  بسبع بليون متر مكعب سنويا .وفي حقيقة الامر فإن الامم المتحدة قد حذرت من نفاذ المياه في مصر بحلول عام 2025.

دعونا نلقي نظره فاحصه على العوامل الرئيسيه التي تؤثر على الامن المائي في مصر.

الانفجار السكاني

ان العدد السكاني في مصر اّخذ بالتكاثر بمعدل ينذر بالخطر , ولقد زاد بنسبه 41 بالمئه منذ بداية التسعينيات. تشير التقارير الاخيرة من قبل الحكومة الى ان حوالي 4,700   حديثي الولادة تضاف الى عدد السكان كل أسبوع و تشير التوقعات المستقبليه  الى ان عدد السكان سيرتفع من 80 مليون الى 98.7 مليون بحلول عام 2025.

ان الزيادة السكانية السريعة من شأنها ان تضاعف الضغط على الامداد المائي من خلال زيادة الاحتياجات المائية  للاستهلاك المحلي و زيادة استخدام مياه الري  لتلبيه الطلب على الغذاء.

الري غير الفعال

تحصل مصر على نسبه اقل من 80 ملم من الهطول المطري سنويا,وتعد ما نسبته 6 بالمئه من اراضيها فقط صالحا للزراعة وما تبقى فهو صحراء.وهذا بدوره  يؤدي الى الافراط في الري واستخدام تقنيات الري المسرف كالري السطحي ( الري بالغمر) و هي طريقه قديمه للري حيث يتم اغراق القطعة الزراعيه بالمياه.

في الوقت الحالي,فان شبكة الري تستمد بالكامل من سد اسوان العالي و هذا بدوره ينظم اكثر من 18,000 ميل من القنوات الرئيسية و القنوات الفرعيه التي تروي الاراضي الزراعيه المجاوره للنهر. يعد هذا النظام غير فعال , حيث يقدر معدل الفاقد من مياه النيل بفعل التبخر 3 مليارات متر مكعب سنويا . ان من شأن  انخفاض الامداد المائي  ان يقود الى انخفاض الاراضي الصالحة للزراعة و حيث ان قطاع الزراعه يشكل اكبر رب عمل للشباب فان شح المياه يمكن ان يقود الى زيادة معدلات البطالة.

التلوث

 اصبحت المخلفات الزراعية والنفايات الصناعية السائلة  و مياه الصرف الصحي ُتلقى بغير اهتمام في نهر النيل مما يجعلها تدريجيا غير صالحة للاستهلاك البشري. اضف الى ذلك فإن مياه الصرف الصحي القادمة من الاحياء الفقيرة ومناطق عديدة في القاهره اضحت تفرغ في نهر النيل وذلك لنقص  المحطات المعالجة لتلك المياه.

 تلك المخلفات الزراعية عاده ما تحتوي على ملوثات من مبيدات الحشرات و الاعشاب مما يؤثر سلبا على مياه النهر. كذلك النفايات الصناعية السائله غالبا ما تكون شديدة السميه وتحتوي على معادن ثقيلة و التي يمكن ان تتحد مع المواد الصلبه العالقة في مياه الصرف الصحي لتشكل الوحل. كل هذه العوامل مجتمعه معا من شأنها ان تلوث نهر النيل و تنذر بشؤم للأجيال القادمة.

الاضطرابات الاقليميه

تسيطر مصر على غالبيه الموارد المائية المستخرجه من نهر النيل بمقتضى معاهدة الحقبه الاستعمارية التي تضمن حصة  ما نسبته 90 بالمئه من نهر النيل و تمنع الدول المجاوره لها من الحصول ولو على قطره واحده من النيل من دون الحصول على إذنها .وعلى الرغم من ذلك فان هذا لا يمنع  البلدان الواقعه على نهر النيل  مثل بوروندي و اثيوبيا من استغلال الاضطرابات السياسيه التي تعصف بمصر وكسب المزيد من السيطرة على حقوق  النيل. ورغم ان نهر النيل يزود مصر بما نسبته 95 بالمئه من المياه العذبة   فإن فقدان بعض الامدادات المائية يمكن ان يشكل متاعب إضافيه لمصر.

الختام

إن قضيه المياه في مصر تتصاعد بنسبه مثيره للقلق. بحلول عام 2020 ,سوف تستهلك مصر بما يقدَر 20 بالمئه اكثر  من المياه مما كانت عليه. مع فقدان قبضتها على النيل  فان شح المياه في مصر  من شأنه ان يهدد استقرار البلاد و الهيمنة الاقليميه. و هذا يحتم على الحكومة المصريه و جميع السكان التحرك بسرعة وبشكل حاسم للتخفيف من شح المياه  وتطبيق اساليب و تقنيات اكثر فاعليه للمحافظة على المياه و منع تلوثها  ووضع وتطوير خطط من شأنها السيطرة على تلوث المياه وجعل تقنيات الري اكثر فاعليه و كفاءة و ذلك لتجنب وقوع كارثة.

ترجمة

سلام عبدالكريم عبابنه

مهندسه مدنية في شركة المسار المتحده للمقاولات – مهتمه في مجال البيئه و الطاقة المتجدده

Republished by Blog Post Promoter

An Adaptive Refugee Camp Model for the Middle East

Natural disasters and wars are two main reasons that force populations to leave their homes, which consequently push for an urgent need to provide temporary shelters or settlements as a disaster management plan. For many years, governments and aid agencies have worked on offering emergency relief camps. Solutions have ranged from short term to long-term shelters. Tents are the most common shelter structure used. However, studies show that the majority of current tent shelters do not satisfy comfort conditions for occupants and hardly satisfy privacy, hygiene and other social needs. They are also expensive to fabricate and deteriorate quickly.

Several countries in the Middle East have experienced a lot of the aforementioned challenges in accommodating Syrian refugees since the uprising began in March of 2011. Many quick shelter camps have been erected to safeguard thousands of refugees in Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon. Observing shelters in these three different contexts showed similar problems, especially with social inconvenience and thermo-hygrometric comfort conditions. Another major issue is energy support. As the Arab world has suffered recently from energy poverty, fuel intake in refugee camps appeared not only to be a problem in terms of availability and cost but a problem of logistics as well.

The rapid increase of death rates and conflicts between occupants inside camps is an alarm that signals the urgency to find a solution. In our study, we have tried to address problems from an urban and architectural perspective and to offer an understanding of the correlation between socio-cultural aspects and energy efficiency in emergency shelters.

Built on the study of traditional Bedouin tents in the Middle East region, the proposal explored how to achieve both indoor and outdoor comfort together with a decent private social life for refugees. The results revealed that we can derive practical lessons for contemporary emergency shelters from understanding the thermal performance as well as the social implications of Bedouin tents.

Bedouin tent as an alternative

The Bedouin tent relies on a tensile lightweight and transportable method of construction. The Bedouins call it (beit sha’r) as the tent cloth is woven from goat hair or a mixture of sheep wool and camel hair. The use of a flexible membrane as a skin for a habitable space distinguishes it from the rest of the methods of construction. From our site investigation, we deduced that in the Bedouin culture, the tent is constructed in relation to the natural topography and the sun. Bedouin families pack up their tents and move towards the sun in autumn and winter and then away from it in summer. The orientation of the tent changes during summer and winter as well.

An adaptive refugee camp proposal

Through defining local Bedouin inhabitants’ social and thermal comfort adaptation measures inside and outside their tents and adaptation to the extreme weather conditions in summer and winter, we tried to draw applicable, hands-on, and low-tech solutions for current low-cost temporary shelters.

From our site investigations, we realised that intervention in refugee camps walks the line between ‘permanentization’ of the camps and the improvement of living conditions while maintaining the temporality of these settlements. The lifespan of Bedouin tent cloth is usually from five to six years which is an adequate time for a temporary shelter.

On the social and humanitarian level, the internal organization of the tent should always reflect the social needs of its occupants. Tents do not have clear boundaries between the inside and the outside. The interior of the tent can be extended using internal mats to create a porch (fina’). The space outside the tent should occupy practical functions. Some of these functions are more related to women, e.g., where they gather for cleaning, washing or cooking, while other intermediate zones should accommodate shared facilities like toilets and showers, while still assuring privacy in both cases.

The plot for setting up a camp is proposed as a division into a basic grid of approximately 6 x 3 meters to be assigned to refugee families according to the number of persons in each family. A preliminary network of passages and corridors is set between the basic parcels. Each family gets a sheet of wool fabric and a set of poles to divide up the internal space of the tent according to their needs. The straight corridors and passages between the tents create in-between spaces that differ in size, providing a greater potential for a variation in social activities such as receiving guests while still preserving privacy.

The environmental aspects of the new grid proposal offer intermediate spaces that regulate the outdoor temperature between tents. The shaded zones can serve as fields, storing cool air, while the unshaded zones serve as containers for hot air. The difference in air pressure in both zones enhances air circulation in-between the tents, offering cold air breezes.  In winter, all the open spaces will be unshaded and directly exposed to the sun, and the irregular shapes of the street network will act as windbreaks, helping to reduce wind speed and velocity.

For the tent material, we propose using natural wool because of its thermal properties and durability. The roof will be a double skin, making use of the tensile flexible properties of the wool allowing for stretching this double skin structure. In summer, an air gap is created between the two layers to allow for air movement and to reduce heat gain while in winter the two layers create a thick thermal insulation. The internal height of the tent in summertime is higher to allow for hot air with a lower density to escape from the top opening of the tent. In winter, the height is reduced to keep the internal heat gain with closed sides to assure air tightness and reduce infiltration. In addition, the top surface can be stretched in an inclined form in winter for rain and snowfall.

Proposed solution for thermal adaptation in summer and winter.

Conclusion

This study concludes that the Bedouin tent still remains a resilient tensile structure with several environmental potentials that can be quickly erected or dismantled. We hope this study can be developed further as tested prototypes for adaptive solutions to climate challenges while providing decent shelters for poor urban refugees.

 

Authors: Marwa Dabaieh and Ahmad Borham

Marwa Dabaieh is an architect and BioGeometry® practitioner. She had several publications and lectures in the fields of energy efficient buildings, passive design, low carbon communities, sustainable conservation, vernacular architecture and BioGeometry®. She mainly applies transdisciplinary approaches in her research work through participatory action research methods. She received the Swedish Elna Bengtssons foundation prize for scientific research in 2012 for her PhD project. Currently Marwa is a post-doc researcher at Lund University in Sweden. Her current research focus is vernacular passive low-tech methods and their adaptation for contemporary energy efficient and affordable carbon neutral building practice.

Ahmad Borham is an independent urban researcher, practicing design architect and teaching in the Arab Academy for Science and Technology as well as the American University in Cairo. He holds a Masters of Science with a thesis is titled Resilient Rules: Culture and Computation in Traditional Built Environments. He is co-founder of Cairo from Below and Madd initiatives which share the aim to encourage inclusive urbanization in Cairo. He also maintains the Drawing Parallels blog where he draws comparisons between urban conditions in Cairo and other cities in search for emergent patterns.

Medical Waste Management in MENA

Healthcare sector in MENA region is growing at a very rapid pace, which in turn has led to tremendous increase in the quantity of medical waste generation by hospitals, clinics and other establishments. According to a recent Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs report, Egypt generated 28,300 tons of hazardous medical wastes in 2010. In the GCC region, more than 150 tons of medical waste is generated in GCC countries every day. Saudi Arabia leads the pack with daily healthcare waste generation of more than 80 tons. These figures are indicative of the magnitude of the problem faced by municipal authorities in dealing with medical waste disposal problem across the MENA region. 

Multitude of Problems

The growing amount of medical wastes is posing significant public health and environmental challenges in major cities of the region. The situation is worsened by improper disposal methods, insufficient physical resources, and lack of research on medical waste management. Improper management of medical wastes from hospitals, clinics and other facilities in MENA pose occupational and public health risks to patients, health workers, waste handlers, haulers and general public. It may also lead to contamination of air, water and soil which may affect all forms of life. In addition, if waste is not disposed of properly, ragpickers may collect disposable medical equipment (particularly syringes) and to resell these materials which may cause dangerous diseases.

Improper management of medical wastes from hospitals, clinics and other facilities in MENA pose occupational and public health risks to patients, health workers, waste handlers, haulers and general public. It may also lead to contamination of air, water and soil which may affect all forms of life. In addition, if waste is not disposed of properly, ragpickers may collect disposable medical equipment (particularly syringes) and to resell these materials which may cause dangerous diseases.

Medical waste management method in MENA is limited to either small-scale incineration or landfilling. The practice of landfilling of medical wastes is a matter of serious concern as it poses grave risks to public health, water resources, soil fertility as well as air quality. In many Middle East and North Africa countries, medical wastes is mixed with municipal solid wastes and/or industrial wastes which transforms medical wastes into a cocktail of dangerous substances. 

The WHO policy paper of 2004 and the Stockholm Convention, has stressed the need to consider the risks associated with the incineration of healthcare waste as a typical medical waste incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants which may include particulate matter, heavy metals, acid gases, carbon monoxide and organic compounds. Sometimes pathogens may also be found in the solid residues and in the exhaust of poorly designed and badly operated incinerators. In addition, leachable organic compounds, like dioxins and heavy metals, are usually present in bottom ash residues. Due to these factors, many industrialized countries are phasing out healthcare incinerators and exploring technologies that do not produce any dioxins. Countries like United States, Ireland, Portugal, Canada and Germany have completely shut down or put a moratorium on medical waste incinerators. 

Promising Treatment Options

The alternative technologies for healthcare waste treatment are steam sterilization, advanced steam sterilization, microwave treatment, dry heat sterilization, alkaline hydrolysis, and biological treatment. Nowadays, steam sterilization (or autoclaving) is the most common alternative treatment method. Advanced autoclaves or advanced steam treatment technologies combine steam treatment with vacuuming, internal mixing or fragmentation, internal shredding, drying, and compaction thus leading to as much as 90% volume reduction. 

Microwave treatment is a promising technology in which treatment occurs through the introduction of moist heat and steam generated by microwave energy. Alkaline digestion is a unique type of chemical process that uses heated alkali to digest tissues, pathological waste, anatomical parts, or animal carcasses in heated stainless steel tanks. Biological processes, like composting and vermicomposting, can also be used to degrade organic matter in healthcare waste such as kitchen waste and placenta.

Introduction to Biorefinery

A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. Biorefinery is analogous to today’s petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and products from petroleum. By producing several products, a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates, therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock.

A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. At the same time, it can generate electricity and process heat, through CHP technology, for its own use and perhaps enough for sale of electricity to the local utility. The high value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce GHG emissions from traditional power plant facilities.

Working of a Biorefinery

There are several platforms which can be used in a biorefinery with the major ones being the sugar platform and the thermochemical platform (also known as syngas platform).

Sugar platform biorefineries breaks down biomass into different types of component sugars for fermentation or other biological processing into various fuels and chemicals. On the other hand, thermochemical biorefineries transform biomass into synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) or pyrolysis oil.

The thermochemical biomass conversion process is complex, and uses components, configurations, and operating conditions that are more typical of petroleum refining. Biomass is converted into syngas, and syngas is converted into an ethanol-rich mixture. However, syngas created from biomass contains contaminants such as tar and sulphur that interfere with the conversion of the syngas into products. These contaminants can be removed by tar-reforming catalysts and catalytic reforming processes. This not only cleans the syngas, it also creates more of it, improving process economics and ultimately cutting the cost of the resulting ethanol.

Biorefineries would help utilize the optimum potential of wastes and help solve the problems of waste management and greenhouse gas emissions. Each of these three components could be converted, through enzymatic/chemical treatments into either hydrogen or liquid fuels. The pre-treatment processes involved with these, generate products like paper-pulp, HFCS, solvents, acetate, resins, laminates, adhesives, flavour chemicals, activated carbon, fuel enhancers, undigested sugars etc. which generally remain untapped in the traditional processes.

Prospects in MENA

The MENA region has significant biomass energy potential in the form of municipal wastes, crop residues, industrial wastes etc. Around the region, pollution of air, water and soil from different waste streams continues to grow. The major biomass producing countries in MENA are Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. Traditionally, biomass energy has been widely used in rural areas for domestic purposes in the MENA region, especially in Egypt, Yemen and Jordan. The escalating prices of oil and natural gas, the resulting concern over energy-security, have led the MENA nations to explore alternative sources of energy.  Biorefinery offers a plausible solution for augmenting energy supply, obtaining clean energy and production of a wide range of chemicals from a host of waste material, apart from associated waste management benefits.