Insights into WTE Industry

Waste-to-Energy is the use of modern combustion and biochemical technologies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban wastes. These new technologies can reduce the volume of the original waste by 90%, depending upon composition and use of outputs. The main categories of waste-to-energy technologies are physical technologies, which process waste to make it more useful as fuel; thermal technologies, which can yield heat, fuel oil, or syngas from both organic and inorganic wastes; and biological technologies, in which bacterial fermentation is used to digest organic wastes to yield fuel.

Global Scenario

Around 130 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) are combusted annually in over 600 waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities globally that produce electricity and steam for district heating and recovered metals for recycling. Since 1995, the global WTE industry increased by more than 16 million tonnes of MSW. Incineration, with energy recovery, is the most common waste-to-energy method employed worldwide. Over the last five years, waste incineration in Europe has generated between an average of 4% to 8% of their countries’ electricity and between an average of 10% to 15% of the continent’s domestic heat.

Currently, the European nations are recognized as global leaders of the SWM and WTE movement. They are followed behind by the Asia Pacific region and North America respectively. In 2007 there are more than 600 WTE plants in 35 different countries, including large countries such as China and small ones such as Bermuda. Some of the newest plants are located in Asia.

The United States processes 14 percent of its trash in WTE plants. Denmark, on the other hand, processes more than any other country – 54 percent of its waste materials. As at the end of 2008, Europe had more than 475 WTE plants across its regions – more than any other continent in the world – that processes an average of 59 million tonnes of waste per annum. In the same year, the European WTE industry as a whole had generated revenues of approximately US$4.5bn.

Legislative shifts by European governments have seen considerable progress made in the region’s WTE industry as well as in the implementation of advanced technology and innovative recycling solutions. The most important piece of WTE legislation pertaining to the region has been the European Union’s Landfill Directive, which was officially implemented in 2001 which has resulted in the planning and commissioning of an increasing number of WTE plants over the past five years.

Middle East Scenario

Unfortunately, Middle East is yet to witness real activity in waste-to-energy sector. There has been several promising initiatives in the past few years, especially in Qatar, UAE and Jordan but more efforts are required to make waste-to-energy a byline for sustainable development. The Middle East is well-poised for waste-to-energy development, with its rich feedstock base in the form of municipal solid wastes.

The high rate of population growth, urbanization and economic expansion in the Middle East is not only accelerating consumption rates but also accelerating the generation of solid waste. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait rank in the top-ten worldwide in terms of per capita waste generation. The gross urban waste generation quantity from Middle East countries is estimated at more than 150 million tons annually which could be better managed if waste-to-energy is incorporated in the solid waste management strategy in Middle Eastern countries.

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A Glance at Waste-Free Economy

Growth from trashing the planet was never a clever idea and linear economics has now reached the end of the line. The ‘more is better’ economy does not need to be stimulated to grow nor constrained from growing. It needs to be entirely replaced by ‘positive development’ in which markets work to automatically, systematically make things better both locally and globally. The folly of endless resources extraction, endlessly unmet human needs and endless waste dumping can end. Linear economics can be replaced by ‘circular economics’

Waste-Free Growth Model

A switch towards waste-free growth would preserve and regenerate material value and natural capital instead of losing it, so growth would work to build the physical basis for more growth. So long as this happens soon enough, there is no end-point; growth that preserves the resources on which it depends may expand with no theoretical limit to the monetary value of final services that can be produced from a given physical resource input. The future for growth is circular economics where greater economic activity would mean a faster pace of change away from waste-making and towards looking after the world and all its inhabitants. 

What is Circular Economy

In a circular economy profits, jobs and growth come not from extracting, moving, shaping, selling and dumping ever more resources, but from the work done and value created by handling resources with sufficient care that ecosystems and total natural resources actually expand, making it possible to meet human needs everywhere. There would still be unwanted materials to ‘get rid of’ but they would not end up accumulating in ecosystems, they would instead be regenerated as new resources for the Earth and for the economy.

There are no material or non-material human needs that inherently require resources to be lost as wastes in ecosystems. The daunting gulf between the current waste-making economy and tomorrow’s waste-free economy may be reimagined as a vast exciting source of work, jobs and growth.

Making the Switch

The activities needed to switch from linear to circular economics include work on resources, such as doing more with less, cradle to cradle design, doing without accumulative toxics, local recycling and composting everywhere, and reversing the global loss of ecological productivity. Envisage taking the loose ends of the linear economy (extraction and dumping) and joining them together so the new circular economy gains a reliable feedstock of resources.

Abundant energy, arriving free-of-charge from outside the biosphere would provide the thermodynamic input to run circular economics and the potential for regenerating existing accumulations of waste (such as GHG) into new biological and geological resources. Most of the perceived ‘limits of nature’ are limited only by linear economics.

Major Ingredients

The activities needed to switch to circular economics also include non-technical work to create suitable societal conditions such as inclusiveness, sharing and co-operation. A linear economy, with diminishing resources and prospects, inevitably invites alienation, hoarding and conflict – as if the game is for everyone to grab what they can while it lasts.

A circular economy would not need to sell people things they don’t need so radical shifts of culture are invited, such as social status defined by sharing rather than hoarding. Genuine hope for the future could cut urges to indulge in crime, corruption and cheating. Our innate human values of compassion could expand to include all people and all life, with massive economic benefits that are barely imaginable today.

 

Note: This article was originally published by Edie.net newsroom

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Tackling Litter in Jordan

Garbage_JordanIn the recent past, Amman was among the cleanest cities in the world. These days, like many other countries, Jordan experiences littering of all waste types in its public areas, which has serious impacts on the environment, the economy, the aesthetic appearance of the regions that experience littering, and the public health.

The "Invisible Trash"

Littering which has become a national scourge is omnipresent in Jordan. Drive along any road in Jordan and you will see all types of  litter, including cans, cigarette butts, plastic bags, tissues, sandwich wrappers, and old tyres. To outline the problem, an observational study was carried out by the writer in 2011 in Wakalat Street. The study made manifest the erroneous perception of cleanliness in public areas.  The interviewee reported the area as “clean” and overlooked litter that had accumulated on roadsides and had filled plant pots. 

Daily scene of “invisible trash” despite the spreading of trash cans along the Wakalat Street.

Daily scene of “invisible trash” despite the spreading of trash cans along the Wakalat Street.

Reasons behind Littering

In the past few years, similar changes in population patterns have led to dramatic changes in all forms of human activities. As expected, this has led to the production of ever-growing quantities of wastes. Among the factors that contribute to increase littering are the nature of the Municipal council, lack of waste management infrastructure, an increase in the poverty rate, influxes of refugees, and, most importantly, changes in citizens’ behavior have all contributed to increase littering.  

The aforementioned study revealed another reason for littering, which was an erroneous perception of what “cleanliness” constituted. Furthermore, a gap between theoretical and practical aspects of environmental knowledge led to Jordanians’ failure to see how environmental problems applied to their daily lives. Thus, they are unlikely act on them appropriately.

Carelessness in discarding the trash in the middle of streets in Zarqa

Carelessness in discarding the trash in the middle of streets in Zarqa

Social Perception

Jordanians define littering in terms of ethics or acculturation. They perceive littering as lack of civility, education, or as a result of carelessness, as well as something that is haram (forbidden) in Islam.

Strategy to Combat Littering

Individuals and NGOs are working hard to organize many anti-littering and clean-up campaigns. Encouraging behavioral change is a challenging task due to pressing socioeconomic issues such as poverty and unemployment.

Perhaps the most distinctive level of the protection framework is public participation. Therefore, conservation efforts should include the support and participation of citizens, researchers, municipalities, industry, and other sectors. To give practical solutions to prevent littering in Jordan, it is important that they fit our cultural background and come from our pioneer heritage which should be merged with modern knowledge. The following are applicable solutions to the tackle litter problem in Jordan:

  • Adequate Municipal Waste Infrastructure

The municipal waste infrastructure has not been able to keep up with rapid growth and the influx of refugees. Sustainable disposal infrastructure and facilities as well as recycling stations are a prerequisite to solving the grim reality of the litter problem.

  • General Awareness

Fortunately, Jordanians are aware that the issue is increasing. However, volunteers become discouraged when their hard work disappears under a fresh layer of litter. Thus, a comprehensive behavioral change package should be carried out at the national level.

Despite the inclusion of environmental topics in school curricula and conveying it through the media, there is a disconnection between theoretical and practical aspects. Therefore, environmental stewardship must be made relevant to daily life. Moreover, the ideas of cleanliness have to be emphasized in the media as it is rooted in Arab-Islamic culture. More environmental stewardship programs should be adopted in schools; a leading example is the eco-schools program run by JREDS. Such programs should be extended to universities, with a community service course being integrated into graduation requirements and including a cleaning up theme.

  • Ownership

Jordanians take great care of what that they feel ownership over. The Jordanian sense of ownership of public spaces should be expanded. Nationalism should be presented as being responsible for the country and its environment.

  • Effective Law Enforcement

In 2012, GAM launched an ongoing campaign to discourage littering behavior by charging 20 JD fines for littering. It resulted in a drop in the number of littering violations by 13% within the space of a year (2014-2015), confirming the importance of implementing legislation to tackle the problem of littering. As littering is illegal in Jordan, a campaign for publishing the country litter laws that ban litter should be launched. Moreover, financial incentives for cleaning up should be adopted.

  • Community Recycling Bank 

Empowering local communities to solve their own environmental problems is essential to influence the actions of the public towards the desired goal. Recycling initiatives can be locally sustained by individual actors and should be used as income generators for the families involved. Recyclable material would be separated at the household level, then stored in a simple community recycling bank to be sold to scrap traders. Such an initiative would eliminate waste by transforming it from a nuisance to a resource.

  • Business Owners’ Responsibility

Businesses that create litter such as fast-food restaurants should play an active role in stopping litter. Their social responsibility to society and their customers’ demands that they encourage the proper disposal of food wrappers through campaigns and incentives. Furthermore, officials must oblige real estate and factory owners to maintain their land in public view and keep it free of construction and industrial waste.

  • Informal Waste Reclamation

Waste Reclaiming is the collection and reuse or sell the waste materials that would otherwise be sent to landfills by the municipal system. Creation a business model that adopt, organize, and cooperate with informal Waste reclaimers, will help in solving the waste problem and expanding Jordanian employment opportunities.

Conclusion

Today, we are in deep need for modern sustainable techniques derived from our heritage, compatible with our civilization, identity, and the climate of our country, and in consistent with the beliefs of Islam, which state to preserve the balanced relationship with the rest of the elements of creation.

 

References

  1. Abboud, N. (April 2011), Personal interviews.
  2. JT. "Princess Basma Launches Campaign to Combat Littering." Jordan Times. N.p., 16 Sept. 2015. Web. 21 July 2016.
  3. Namrouqa, Hana. "'Over 4,000 Littering Violations Recorded on Amman's Streets in July'" Jordan Times. N.p., 05 Aug. 2014. Web. 21 July 2016.
  4. UNESCO Office in Amman." UNESCO Campaign to Combat Use of Plastic Bags in Jordan. UNESCO, 30 Sept. 2012. Web. 21 July 2016.
  5. Hardin, Rozilla. "Roadside Litter Is a Local Problem." Elizabethton. Elizabethton, 18 Feb. 2016. Web. 21 July 2016.
  6. Water .. "Jordan: Tackling Marine Litter." Revolve Water. ., 2014. Web. 2016.
  7. Dahshan, Jad. "No to Littering." Jordan Times, 09 June 2015. Web. 20 July 2016.
  8. Makansi, Elena. "No Time To Waste Can This Littered Country Transform Itself?" Family Flavours Details. Web. 21 July 2016.
  9. Namrouqa , Hana. "'13% drop registered in littering violations in Amman' ." Jordan Times. Dec 30,2015. Web. 20 July 2016.
  10. SWEEPNET. "Country Report on the Solid Waste Management in JORDAN." (2014): 9. Web.

Solid Waste Management Challenges in GCC

garbage-dump-kuwaitThe challenges posed by solid waste to governments and communities are many and varied. In the Gulf Cooperation Council region, where most countries have considerably high per capita waste generation values, the scale of the challenge faced by civic authorities is even bigger. Fast-paced industrial growth, recent construction boom, increasing population, rapid urbanisation, and vastly improved lifestyle coupled with unsustainable consumption patterns have all contributed to the growing waste crisis in the GCC.

Among the GCC nations, United Arab Emirates has the highest municipal solid waste generation per capita of 2.2 kg (which is among the highest worldwide) followed closely by Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Bahrain. The total urban waste generation in the GCC has been estimated to be around 150 million tons per annum, with MSW being the second largest stream after construction wastes.

Key Challenges

A look at the composition of municipal solid waste in GCC nations suggests that it is largely decomposable and recyclable. However, at present waste disposal into landfills/dumpsites remains the widely practiced method. In countries such as Kuwait and Bahrain where limited land is available, this doesn’t seem to be most prudent option. At present, GCC waste management sector is facing multiple challenges in the form of:

  1. Lack of clear reliable framework by which the solid waste sector is administered from the collection, transformation to disposing or treatment phases
  2. Absence  of effective and comprehensive legislative frameworks governing the solid waste sector and the inadequate enforcement mechanisms, which are no less important than the legislations themselves
  3. Management activities of MSW are considered public services
    which are directly controlled by governmental institutions. Such management arrangement is considered weak as it lacks market mechanisms, and in this case economical incentives cannot be used to improve and develop the MSW management services
  4. Inadequate human and organizational capacities and capabilities
  5. Scarcity of accurate and reliable background data and information on the status of solid waste such as rate of generation of different solid waste constituencies, assessment of natural resources and land-use,   and transportation needs, scenarios of treatment, growth scenarios of solid waste which are linked to several driving forces. Needless to say, data and information are the crucial elements for developing MSW management system including the adequate monitoring of the sector.
  6. Inadequate waste strategies/management infrastructure:  In most GCC countries existing waste handling capacities are insufficient. Presently recyclable recovery rate is low. Further, in the absence of local recycling facilities, there is no alternative except to dump the otherwise recyclable material at Landfills.
  7. Waste recycling is expensive: Though recent years have seen an increase in the number of waste recycling facilities the economics of recycling is still not very favourable. In many cases recycling waste is expensive compared to buying the product which can be attributed to lack of recycling facilities.
  8. Under developed market for recycled products: Insufficient demand for recycled products in the local market is another reason, which has hampered the growth of the waste recycling industry.
  9. Public attitude: Economies in the GCC countries are oil dependant due to high reserves of fossil fuels. For several decades alternatives such as solar and wind were not considered and oil was the easier option.  Recently and due to drop in oil prices more consideration is given to renewable sources. Similarly waste was mainly landfilled as it was the easier choice, yet due to known complication with such treatment, more suitable measures were considered. Therefore there is the need for an effective comprehensive “education and awareness” program in regards of these two issues

The Way Forward

GCC urgently requires an ambitious sustainable development agenda with waste management (minimisation, reuse and recycling) among its main priorities. Waste has a range of environmental impacts, on air, water, and land and also is a major economic drain, especially on city budgets. It is estimated that 50% of a city’s budget is spent on waste management. The inefficient use of scarce resources reflected in materials discarded and abandoned as waste represents a huge economic and environmental cost borne by society as a whole.

GCC urgently requires more recycling facilities, like this MRF in Sharjah

GCC urgently requires more recycling facilities, like this MRF in Sharjah

Management of solid waste is a serious challenge faced by most modern societies. But waste is not only a challenge: it is also a largely untapped opportunity. Proper waste management presents an opportunity not only to avoid the detrimental impacts associated with waste, but also to recover resources, realise environmental, economic and social benefits and take a step on the road to a sustainable future. The benefits arise when waste is treated as a resource, a resource that can be
recovered and put to productive and profitable use. Products can be reused and the materials that make them up can be recovered and converted to other uses or recycled.

Ramadan: A Catalyst for Green Living

green-ramadanThe true meaning of Ramadan is to take care of our body, soul, people, surrounding and ecosystems. The month of Ramadan is a golden opportunity to make a real shift towards ‘green living’ that is environmental friendly, non-polluting, non-wasteful and aim toward saving of natural resources. During Ramadan, let us create awareness on use of resources, think and act positively towards our environment and change our unfriendly habits which are impacting our ecosystem. Let us seize this opportunity to adopt a model for a green and responsible behavior that addresses urgent environmental issues. 

Ramadan witnesses an over-consumption of meat, vegetables and fruits together with drinks, juices and syrups. We become more extravagant in terms of using food and resources. So, let us be patient on these consumptions, eat healthy and organic food in manageable quantities. Let us grow vegetables and fruits at our available land/ space. Use food items judiciously and avoid any wastage.

Let us be away from our routine habits that pollute our air, soil and water resources. Let us be aware of our wasteful habits which are affecting the environment and our future generations. We need to understand that any mismanagement of our precious available resources will be having an irreversible impacts on our ecology and for our future generations. Let us make concerted effort to encourage and embrace “green” practices, especially during Ramadan.

environment-protection-muslims

Ramadan presents the perfect opportunity to recharge our spiritual batteries for the year. It is a time to seek forgiveness for our misgivings and to reflect upon the signs of creation from Allah. As human beings, we have a duty as stewards over this planet, and it is our responsibility to ensure that the resources and environment are used in a sustainable manner.

Let this month not only harness our mental and physical ability but also be a turning point for respecting our resources and environment. Some basic thoughts are:

  • Support and utilize local produce. 
  • Plan food usage with no wastage. 
  • Reducing the water usage, especially during making ‘wadoo’/ ablution. Be vigilant that the tap is closed. Any dripping should be eliminated to conserve precious water.
  • Generating less quantity of waste especially food waste. Support & practice recycling and reuse. 
  • No littering especially in common areas, commercial and religious places and shopping areas.
  • Minimum or no use of plastic bags. Using less paper and stationery.
  • Switching off appliances after use like lights, ACs, fans, heaters, iron etc.
  • Using electrical appliances like washing machines, iron, vacuum cleaner and dishwashers in off peak hours. 
  • Eliminate use of disposables plates, cutlery, cups, containers etc. Avoid using Styrofoam containers and plastic cutlery. 

Recycling of Aluminium Cans

Aluminium is a soft, durable and lightweight metal, made from Bauxite ore, which is mined from the earth. Bauxite is converted into alumina, a fine white powder, which is then smelted at over 700°C to become aluminium, which is one of the versatile products universally being used by consumers in a number of applications. The process is expensive and uses huge resources, including energy and fuel. Making cans out of aluminium for storing soft drinks and juices is one of the commonly used phenomenons as it takes five tonnes of Bauxite to make just one tonne of aluminium cans.

Many of the food and drink products we buy are packaged in cans made from either aluminium or steel and both of these materials can be easily recycled after we have finished with them to make either new cans or other allied suitable products.

Aluminium cans are very common in our daily life and is often consumed as  drink containers and later thrown as garbage in bins or being littered on streets and open plots. The good thing is that these cans provide source of food and income to many poor people who resort to collect them from the bins and open areas and sell it to the middle recycling shops in exchange of money. This practice is certainly restricting huge quantities of cans going to municipal landfill sites saving valuable space and is prompting informal recyclable material collection.

The aluminium can is the world’s most recycled packaging container. We need to understand that all aluminium cans are 100% recyclable. It can take up to 500 years for aluminium cans to decompose. Aluminium does not degrade during the recycling process, which means it can be repeatedly recycled many a times. Recycling aluminium saves millions of tonnes of greenhouse gasses, energy, electricity and fuel for its transportation. Making aluminium cans from recycled materials requires less than 5% of the energy used to make new aluminium cans from Bauxite.

The recycling of aluminium generally produces significant cost savings over the production of new aluminium even when the cost of collection, separation and recycling are taken into account. Over the long term, even larger national savings are made when the reduction in the capital costs associated with landfills, mines and international shipping of raw aluminium are considered.

It is our environmental and social duty to separate aluminium cans from other domestic waste and either give to recyclers or separately discard it at bins, so that it can be easily collected by poor iterants. Before disposal, ensure that the aluminium cans are empty and not soiled and damaged. The collected cans in the Middle East are then taken to a local recycling facility where they are crushed, compacted, baled and later transported and exported to other countries for recycling, where they are milled and remade into new products.

Important fact is that recycling an aluminium can saves enough energy to run a television for three hours. If we throw away two aluminium cans, we waste more energy than is used daily by each of the billion human beings in the developing world.

We need to conserve our environmental resources and practice environmental friendly habits including aluminium can segregation and recycling. Brazil, recycles more than 98% of its aluminium can production, ranking first in the world followed by Japan with 83% recovery rate. Let us strive to make Middle East a recycling heaven and protecting our resources from any kind of pollution.

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Tips for a Green Ramadan

Ramadan is quite different from other months in terms of activities, praying and eating habits. During this month, Muslims should abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset to boost physical and mental endurance and to understand the hardships faced by the poor and needy  who do not have enough resources to satisfy their basic necessities. The true meaning of Ramadan is purifying ourselves, taking care of our body, soul, people, surrounding and ecosystems which is supporting us.

The month of Ramadan is a golden opportunity to consider making a shift towards a ‘green lifestyle’ that is environmental friendly, non-polluting, non-wasteful and aim toward saving of natural resources. The green lifestyle means improving the quality of life and achieving sustainable development.

Like celebrating so many environmental days, Earth Day, World Environment Day etc., why not celebrate the Ramadan as a greening month. Let us create awareness on the subject, think and act positively towards our environment and change our unfriendly habits which are impacting our ecosystem. Let us seize this opportunity provided by Ramadan and offer a model for a green and responsible behavior that addresses the urgent environmental issues.

Go Green During Ramadan

Ramadan witness an overconsumption of meat, vegetables and fruits together with drinks, juices and syrups. We become more extravagant in terms of using food and resources. So, let us exercise moderation on these consumptions, eat healthy and organic food in manageable quantities. Let us grow vegetables and fruits at our available land. Use food items judiciously and avoid any wastage.

Let us be away from sins and habits that pollute our air, soil and water resources. Let us be aware of our wasteful habits which are affecting the environmental and our future generations. Any mismanagement of our precious resources will be having irreversible impacts on our ecology. Let us make concerted effort to encourage and embrace “green”  and ecofriendly practices, especially during Ramadan.

Ramadan presents the perfect opportunity to recharge our spiritual batteries for the year. It is a time to seek forgiveness for our misgivings and to reflect upon the signs of creation from Allah. As Muslims, we have a duty as stewards over this planet, and it is our responsibility to ensure that the resources and environment are used in a sustainable manner.

Let this month not only harness our mental and physical ability but also be a turning point for respecting our resources and environment. Some basic tips for a green Ramadan are:

  • Support and utilize local produce.
  • Plan food intake with proper nutrition and at suitable timings.
  • Cut down and eliminate intake of fast food.
  • Reducing the water usage, especially during making ‘wadoo’/ ablution. Be vigilant that the tap is closed. Any dripping should be eliminated to conserve precious water.
  • Reducing our energy and carbon footprint.
  • Generating less quantity of waste. Emphasizing on recycling and reuse.
  • No littering at any places especially common areas, commercial and religious places and shopping areas.
  • Minimum or no use of plastic bags. Using less paper and stationery.
  • Switching off appliances after use like lights, ACs, fans, heaters, iron etc.
  • Using electrical appliances like washing machines, iron, vacuum cleaner and dishwashers in off peak hours.
  • Planting a tree and taking care of plantation.
  • Replacing lights blubs from incandescent to CFLs or LEDs and turning off lights when they are not in use.
  • Similarly, at the mosque, keeping outside doors closed when the air conditioning is on and dimming the lights also reduces energy consumption as well.
  • Eliminate disposables plates, cutlery, cups, containers etc.
  • Avoid using Styrofoam containers and plastic cutlery.

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Trash Talk from Doha

recycling-dohaOn arriving a few years ago from a town in the UK that boasts a university course in waste management, and a very efficient weekly recyclable waste collection from our houses, I was a bit shocked, like many Europeans by how difficult it was to recycle in Doha. Having had the moral obligation to recycle drummed into me since I was quite young, I felt guilty throwing away all my waste into one bin, destined to fill up a huge smelly hole in the desert, where it would take a long time, if not forever to biodegrade.

The Real Picture

I was determined to find a place to recycle and was happy when I found out that the park of Dahl al Hammam, just 5 minutes’ drive from my villa, had 7 different large recycling banks. These have to be emptied into trucks daily, due to their enthusiastic filling, mostly by Europeans who make the effort to come from many different compounds that are further away than my own. Waste materials can be sorted into two banks for paper and cardboard, two banks for metal and plastic, two banks for glass and another one for second hand but good quality clothes for charity. 

I have been trying to determine over the last four years if all our conscientious efforts to sort, collect and transport our preciously gathered waste materials have been in vain or not. Are they actually taken to factories where they are recycled into new products or not? I see a lot of small recycling bins in educational institutions, which seem to be more of an experiment to observe human behaviour, and to get people to start separating the things they throw away, rather than a real improvement in recycling. Often all separated waste from these is taken away and put in one bin, and then taken to the normal landfill!

I asked a security officer in Dahl al Hammam, and he reassured me that the materials from the banks are indeed taken to the sorting plant in Al-Messaieed. I am still a little unsure.  In Al-Mesaieed there is a very large Domestic Solid Waste Management Centre (DSWMC). The plant has been online since 2011 and of the waste they receive, 95% is recycled or converted into energy.  Organic material is composted at what is the world’s largest composting plant; plastics and metals recycled and other material incinerated, with the heat generated used to produce 40 MW of electricity. However this $550M plant by 2013, two years after its opening, had already reached its processing capacity of 2300 tonnes daily, for sorting rubbish.

Gravity of the Situation

In 2012 a staggering total of 871000 tonnes of solid household waste, or 28 000 tonnes per day were produced by Qatar, a rise of 7% from 2011, increasing at a rate exceeding Qatar’s Government expectations and preparations. The per capita generation of waste in Qatar of 1.6kg to 1.8kg each day is about four times that of Hong Kong and is one of the highest globally. Besides this it has been estimated that 5000 tonnes of waste are produced daily by industry and construction. In 2011 only 8% of waste was recycled.

To cope with the challenge of waste management, Qatar urgently requires more projects like Domestic Solid Waste Management Centre (DSWMC) at Al-Mesaieed

To cope with the challenge of waste management, Qatar urgently requires more projects like Domestic Solid Waste Management Centre (DSWMC) at Al-Mesaieed

Qatar unfortunately has the second largest ecological footprint on the planet, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature’s report in 2014, a substantial contribution to this is the damage to ecosystems and the carbon footprint incurred through all its imports. Being a small peninsula on the edge of the hot and usually arid Arabian Desert, Qatar has to import nearly everything that it needs from far and wide. It would like to be more independent and resilient and is working in that direction. The fall in the price of oil earlier this year, and therefore in the income of Qatar, has added pressure now to reduce expenditure, and to better balance the books. 

The Way Forward

One way it can fulfil these aims is to become more efficient in its use of resources. If it can reuse many of the materials from the products that it uses, then it will reduce the need to import more goods, thereby cutting costs, carbon emissions and ecosystem damage. This it can do this through applying the famous ‘reduce, re-use, and recycle’ motto. A famous English saying is ‘waste not want not’, which means that if you are not wasteful in times of plenty, and make maximum use of everything, then you will have enough left for times of difficulty. The Holy Quran also says, ‘O Children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer. Eat and drink but waste not through excess, for Allah loves not the wasters’(7:31). The Qatar National Development Strategy 2011-16 aimed to boost waste recycled to 38% by 2016, a definite challenge in the face of rapid development and population increases.

One challenge in Qatar is mixed nature of most of the rubbish. This is partly due to the lack of accessible information about existing collectors of sorted recyclable materials. Another is the insufficient awareness in the most of the population about the importance of not dropping litter, reducing wastage and separating materials. An issue being addressed is the currently insufficient infrastructure to sort and separate mixed rubbish- which represents the majority of rubbish collected today. Also factories that process used materials to improve their quality are rare, and few Qatari industries utilise such salvaged materials as an input. All sectors need to work together concurrently to improve awareness and education, and the sorting, collection and processing of useful materials extracted from waste, to utilise them for the manufacture of new products in Qatar.

To facilitate these, a constantly updated website could be set up to link companies, organisations and institutions, and make them aware of each other’s waste outputs. According to the Qatar Development Bank, the revenue potential from solid waste could be as high as QR 2.24 billion with QR 979.16 million coming from recycling household waste. Hopefully more bright sparks in Qatar will soon spot the great business opportunities available from recycled materials, to help Qatar to be more self-sufficient and reduce Qatar’s ecological footprint.

Note: The article is being republished with the kind permission of The Peninsular Qatar. The original article can be read at this link

Don’t Mess with Dahab – An Introduction

No matter where I were in the world right now, I'd be writing about the same problem – trash –  because it's not just the streets and shores of Dahab that are littered with rubbish. Travel to coastal cities around the world and you'll find many of the beaches in much the same state. Cairo and other places in Egypt are also dealing with their own problems of waste management.

There always seems to be a lot of talk about the obstacles we face in dealing with this problem: Garbage collection services provided by the city government are inefficient. Dumpsters are sparse and broken, causing the trash to be scattered along the road by the wind or hungry goats and sheep. The blame often gets laid on the people in charge of dealing with our trash; rarely do we take the blame ourselves.

It's time we stop for a moment and consider what we, as individuals, can do without the assistance of waste collection services, whether they are private or public. Because if there's one thing we can control, it's the amount of trash we each produce. If each of us “throws away” less rubbish, there will be less rubbish for the wind to blow around, less rubbish for the goats to scamper through, less rubbish finding its way into our seas and deserts, and less rubbish piling up in the streets waiting for someone to clean!

If you've participated in a clean-up event or had a closer look at the piles of rubbish lying around, you've probably realized that a lot of our trash is plastic. There are a lot of environmental and health problems associated with plastic and for the sake of humanity's well being, we cannot wait any longer to do something about the sheer amount of plastic polluting our earth.

Learning how to use less disposable plastic is something I've been working on personally for the past several years. Last year, I began writing the Don't Mess with Dahab blog to share with others what I've discovered. Now, I'll be contributing here on EcoMENA and I'll be sharing ways that each of us can reduce our use of disposable plastic. While I won't be able to suggest specific stores, restaurants, or companies like I do on Don't Mess with Dahab, I will be sharing ideas for alternatives to single-use plastic. I'll also discuss the different types of plastic, the problems associated with each, recyling plastics and more. As we'll see, these strategies will not only benefit the environment, but also your health and your wallet, as many of these tips will save you money.

It is my hope that my blogs will help us all become more aware, more responsible, and more pro-active when it comes to our personal health and the health of our environment.

And if you're wondering where the title of my blog, Don't Mess with Dahab, comes from, well, that's the Texan in my heart, who remembers with fondness the Don't Mess with Texas anti-litter campaign. Sponsored by the Texas Department of Transportation, the campaign was quite successful and over the years the phrase ingrained itself into Texan culture. It's a matter of pride. And while my blog is not focused on litter exactly, I called Texas home for 9 years of my life and the phrase Don't Mess with Texas still puts a smile on my face.

So let's all be proud of our home, native or adopted, wherever we are in the world and work towards making it a cleaner place!

Refuse ~ Reduce ~ Reuse ~ Recycle

 

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Waste Management Awareness in Oman: A Pilot Study

dumpsite-omanThe four Rs (reduce, reuse, repurpose, and recycle) of waste management have not yet entered the everyday discourse of Oman, but does this mean that they are not part of everyday life in Oman? We think the people of Oman can help us to answer this question. To get a first-hand understanding of the degree of waste management awareness in Oman, a pilot study was designed, a questionnaire was prepared, and in a series of interviews with individual Omanis we recorded their responses. 

Insights into the Survey

The questionnaire covered household consumption habits, food waste and other household waste, and awareness of the four Rs, with particular attention to recycling. The main focus of the survey was on food waste. Of the 21 questions, fifteen were multiple-choice, with write-in options for any needed explanation. There were six open-ended questions, inviting respondents to give their opinion or share something of their experiences and knowledge of the topic. 

The respondents were all adult Omani nationals, ranging in age from their early twenties to their late fifties. All respondents reside in Muscat, but the majority were originally from other provinces and maintained a strong connection with their home village or town. The respondents represented various occupations such as: university student, homemaker, bank clerk, teacher, taxi driver and police officer. The interviews were carried out in March and April 2016.

Who take care of grocery shopping?

60 percent of respondents said that in their household, the wife usually took care of the grocery shopping. 20 percent said the husband had that responsibility, and another 20 percent said that both husband and wife regularly did the grocery shopping together. When asked how often (monthly, weekly, daily, or not regularly) the grocery shopping was done in their households, most respondents said that it depended on the commodity. Dry goods such as rice, pulses, flour, sugar, and coffee were purchased in larger quantities on a monthly basis, while most households shopped for fruits, vegetables, milk and bread at least once a week.

Do you prefer to buy food in bulk or pre-packaged?

In response to this question: Do you prefer to buy food in bulk (by the gram/kilogram) or pre-packaged? they answered patiently (but clearly some thought it was a silly question) that of course “it depends on the type of food.” Some foods were fresher and cheaper in bulk, whereas other foods were cleaner and free of impurities when packaged at the factory. Eighty percent of respondents stated that they shopped at a supermarket for most of their household groceries; 50 percent of them said that they regularly shopped at an outdoor market (such as a fish or vegetable market) for certain commodities. No respondents said that they relied on small shops for their grocery shopping.

A few of the middle-aged respondents recalled that when they were children, there was not much choice when one went to the market. Their parents could buy staples such as rice, flour, tea, coffee and sugar, and a few varieties of greens and fruits. Nowadays, one of them remarked, shopping at the supermarket they had trouble deciding between the many processed and packaged products on offer, such as cheeses, yoghurts, juices, sweets, and imported fresh and frozen meats and other produce.

Seventy percent of those surveyed said they used the free ‘disposable’ plastic bags dispensed by the shops, and only 30 percent took their own reusable bag or other reusable receptacle to do their shopping. However, those who did go to the outdoor markets said they often brought their own cartons or plastic vegetable crates in order to carry the produce home in their cars. When asked what their parents or grandparents had used for their shopping, 40 percent said “a basket” and 60 percent said “a box” (meaning either a vegetable crate or a carton). Apparently plastic bags were not an option in “the old days.”

Do you find that your household ends up throwing out food?

The interviewer mentioned to each respondent the statistics that came from the 2012 Sultan Qaboos University study on household food waste in Oman, and posed this question: Do you find that your household/family ends up throwing out food that was not eaten before it spoiled? The responses were somewhat unexpected. Only 30 percent reported that their household regularly had to throw away uneaten food. The other 70 percent said that when there was any food left over from a family meal or a child’s dish, it was fed to animals such as chickens and goats. Several female respondents mentioned that in general they only prepared enough food to feed their own family and perhaps to send a plateful of it to a neighbour.

The exception to this pattern was when they had guests, in which case it was compulsory to prepare greater quantities than usual. Respondents who brought up the subject of hosting and special occasions explained that in Omani culture it was considered a sign of respect for their guests and a point of honour for their family if they served more food than the guests could actually eat. Therefore, weddings, the arrival of a newborn, the two Eids and other celebrations could be expected to result in substantial quantities of wasted food. However, according to several respondents, “back in the village” this is not what happened. Tribal and local municipal regulations actually prohibited the disposal of large quantities of food waste at dumpsites.

The main reason given was that leaving leftover food outside was “bad for the livestock.” That is, a camel will naturally eat as much food as it finds, and if discarded food such as rice is left out in the open, the camel will continue to eat until it gets sick. This surprising claim about camels eating cooked rice seems to be supported by scientific research: “Yagil (1990) observed that camels selected feed which is highly digestible, especially rich in easily fermentable carbohydrates and having high water contents [sic].” Cooked rice fits all three criteria.

Furthermore, camels are proficient at “eating in excess of their immediate needs and storing the extra as fat in the hump.” So out of necessity to protect the health of the camels, it was forbidden to scatter uneaten food. Instead, whoever hosted an event at which quantities of excess food remained would take the food immediately to any nearby encampment of migrant workers and distribute it there. Alternatively, the hosts would distribute it to needy families in their community. If it was not possible to donate the leftover food to others, it was dried in the sun to preserve it and then fed in small quantities to livestock such as goats and chickens.

Comparison between 'Now' and 'Then'

When asked to compare the level of household food waste generated today and when they were children, there was unanimous agreement among respondents that either no or little food was ever wasted “back then,” whereas modern-day urban living has made it harder to avoid wasting food. The respondent above-mentioned who had remarked on the great variety of options available in supermarkets posited that this meant that people ended up buying more than they could practically consume. Another factor suggested by respondents as leading to increased food waste is simply living in a big city where no one notices what you throw in your rubbish bin: back in the village or small town, neighbours would know exactly what your family has tossed into the local dump, so there was a sort of peer pressure against food waste.

In a big city no one notices what you throw in your rubbish bin

In a big city no one notices what you throw in your rubbish bin

What type of drinking water does your household consume?

As a follow-on to consumption patterns for food, the survey asked what type of drinking water each household consumed. In most parts of Oman, it is assumed that tap water is not safe for drinking. Eighty percent of respondents said they subscribed to a commercial service for drinking water. Of those, two-thirds purchased refillable water dispensers (such as Salsabeel, a local brand), usually delivered to their homes as part of the service; one-third bought water from the ubiquitous blue tanker trucks that also deliver to residences in Muscat and other cities and towns.  No households in the survey used non-refillable plastic water bottles (such as Masafi or Oasis brand) as their primary source of drinking water, but thirty percent said they used them on occasion, especially when travelling by road.

Interviewees were asked which of these components (food, plastic packaging/bags, paper/cardboard, plastic bottles or “other”) made up most of the refuse found in their own household rubbish bins. Half of them asserted it was plastic packaging or plastic bags, one-third believed it to be paper and/or cardboard, and the remaining respondents said it was plastic bottles (such as containers for juice, water and household disinfectants).

Are you aware of any local programme for recycling?

The questions about plastic water bottles and what types of material were trashed led to this next query: Are you aware of any local programme for recycling? Only twenty percent of respondents answered “Yes,” and of those, none were aware of any active recycling programme in their neighbourhood or workplace. One respondent thought that the 2013 Dar al Atta’a clothing recycling initiative was still ongoing, because the bins for paper and cardboard recycling set up by the same charity around Muscat in 2015 looked almost identical to those previous bins for clothing.

A few respondents had heard that plastic bottles were being collected somewhere in the city, but had no idea where. Several respondents mentioned that in the past, they used to see individuals salvaging empty aluminium soft drink cans from municipal rubbish bins near streets and in public parks. A couple of these respondents noted that the remuneration price for those used cans had fallen several years ago, and they believed this to be the reason this type of recycling seemed to have disappeared.

Do you recycle any of these items?

The follow-on question was: Do you recycle any of these items? paper/cardboard, plastic bottles, aluminium/metal, glass, clothing or “other”. The category “other” was intended to catch possible but expectedly rare responses such as batteries, electronics and printer ink cartridges. One would think that this follow-up question would have received “Not applicable” as a response from all respondents. However, a few respondents mentioned that they “recycled” some of their own household’s waste, in that they re-used or repurposed items such as cardboard boxes, plastic bottles, glass jars and old tee shirts. Most (70 percent) said that they regularly donated used clothing to poor families or (especially with children’s clothing) gave them to relatives.

This question spurred a couple of female respondents to comment on clothing “waste” as a problem “particular to Omanis,” as they saw it. They mentioned that Omanis who wear traditional clothing must have most of their clothes tailor made, and that—particularly for women’s wear—the fashions changed quickly from season to season. As a result, many women and girls felt they could not be seen wearing last season’s dresses and scarves, and had to buy the latest styles. One respondent further remarked that the cycle of conspicuous consumption was affecting Omani society at many levels, and was even more problematic when it involved costly commodities such as mobile phones, especially on the part of the youth, who junked their “old” phones for the latest models with astonishing frequency.

What factors influenced their beliefs and attitudes about wasting food or throwing away useful items?

Interviewees were asked what factors influenced their beliefs and attitudes about wasting food or throwing away useful items. Sixty percent said that religion (Islam) played the greatest role in this. Thirty percent said family upbringing was the main influence and another ten percent attributed their attitudes to their culture. Education and tradition were mentioned by the majority of respondents as the secondary factors.

What do you think that people in Oman can do to help reduce the amount of waste they are making?

The final question in the survey was: What do you think that people in Oman can do to help reduce the amount of waste they are making? This open-ended question elicited a variety of responses: “Be responsible for yourself and your family”; “don’t buy more than you need”; “donate extra food and clothing instead of throwing it away”; and “re-use items in your home and at your farm.”

Note: This is the second article in our special series on 'Waste Management in Oman'. The first part can be read at this link.

The third and final part analyses the results of the survey and makes a wide range of recommendations to improve the waste management situation in Oman.

 

 

Trash Talk from Gaza

gaza-garbageSolid waste management is considered to be one of the most severe environmental and civic problems in the Gaza Strip. Solid waste in the Gaza strip consists mainly of household waste, building debris, agricultural waste, industrial waste (mainly from worksites), medical wastes, and wastes from car workshops. Solid waste in the Gaza Strip is dumped in the same landfill without separation except for medical waste, which is dumped separately in the main Gaza landfill site. The solid waste generation rate varies between 0.35 to 1.0 kg/capita/day.

Scale of the Problem

Trash generation in the Gaza Strip varies between 830 to 894 tons/day in cities and villages and from 276 to 300 tons/day in the refugee camps. Local surveys and estimates indicate that household waste accounts for 45 to 50% of the total solid waste, construction and industrial wastes 22 to 25%, and the remaining types (e.g. commercial and institutional) 25 to 30%. Bad practices in the Gaza Strip with the absence of legislation and inspection mechanisms during the occupation resulted in inefficient and inconsistent waste collection services. On many occasions, waste is being dumped in open areas, in various places in the Gaza Strip. And to add fuel to the fire, present landfills in the Gaza Strip are overloaded. This represents a looming danger to the public health and the environment, and particularly to the ground water resources, which are already poor. Not only that but also, hazardous emissions, which are resulted from waste incineration, contain thousands of carbon tones (CO2 gas), causing the temperature to rise. Thus in turn, would be probably the cause of climate change.

Promising Initiative of AYCM Palestine

As regard with potential solutions, Governments and many NGO's have tried to solve the problem as much as possible or at least alleviate the effects, which are resulted from it. As an example of these efforts, Natuf Organization for Environment & Community Development in partnership with Arab Youth Climate Movement “AYCM” – Palestine,  implemented “ Environmental Leaders toward a Sustainable Community” project which funded by the European Union and the United Nations Development Programme through GEF. During this project, an environmental initiative titled "Separation and recycling of different waste materials into reusable objects" in cooperation with 'Zero Waste MENA' team in Gaza.

The initiative was carried out in Shalehat Resort located at the Gaza beach with the participation of vacationers. The main activities included a 10-day awareness campaign, which targeted more than 200 families (about 1,400 people overall) and focused on the impacts of solid waste as well as the importance of sorting and reuse. On the final day, children event with clowns and games was held in order to raise their interest in environmental issues and encourage them to become future environmental leaders.

Recycling-Gaza1In addition, this initiative aims to create a practical model for waste recycling in the Gaza Strip in order to promote the environmental and the general awareness among residents in Gaza. Such processes, as an illustration, contribute to reducing the consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage, air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by decreasing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lowering greenhouse gas emissions which are considered as the main cause of climate change. As a result, Recycling can be regarded as a good strategy for waste reduction and mitigation of the climate change impacts in the long term.

Conclusions

To conclude, Gaza Strip has encountered from many serious environmental issues, solid waste management, in particular. Such issues may pose detrimental threats to our environment as well as our health. Consequently, I deeply believe that all of us, governments and individuals, should be responsible and careful about our Earth as much as we can. We should work hard together in order to save the whole environment for all of us and for the future generation.

Waste Management Perspectives for Oman

recycling-OmanGlobalization and modernization have led to increased consumption among the Omani population. Reportedly, the average Omani household throws away one-third of the food it purchases. Conspicuous consumption fuelled by peer pressure and effective advertising brings more goods and products into the home than the family members can actually make use of. And along with the increase in merchandise comes a lot of extra packaging. Product packaging now accounts for the bulk of what is thrown into household rubbish bins.

The urge to keep pace with what one’s neighbours, relatives and peers acquire means higher rates of consumption: a new mobile phone every year instead of every five to ten years, a new car every three years instead of every twenty to thirty years, and so on. Consumption becomes excessive when we cannot make use of what we obtain. The result is waste. Yet the seeds of positive, environmentally-sustainable, community-based waste management are here in the Omani culture and tradition: they just need to be replanted in the right places and nurtured.

Why should anyone be interested in the issue of household waste in Oman? We can start by observing a few important facts—some positive and some negative—about Oman’s relationship with environmental and sustainability issues. As early as 1974, the governmental office of the Advisor on Environmental Affairs was established in Oman. Later on, the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs took its place.[i] Environmental protection, sustainable development, and with that, waste management, are stated priorities for the Omani government.[ii]

Yet Oman has a long way to go when it comes to waste management. More than 350 registered landfills and dumpsites are active around the country, in addition to which, illegal and unmonitored dumpsites are often started by residents of underserved areas.[iii] Currently, the Omani population country-wide produces approximately 700 grams of solid waste per person, and in the Muscat area, the average per person is nearly one kilogramme.[iv] Furthermore, the amount generated per person is projected to increase year by year for the next ten years.[v] According to a study in 2012 by Sultan Qaboos University’s Department of Natural Resource Economics, the average Omani family wastes one-third of its food. That is, approximately seventy riyals worth of food per month is thrown out, not eaten.[vi]

Three important statistics to keep in mind as we discuss the situation in Oman: First, immigrants (migrant workers, expatriates, etc.) account for over thirty percent of the total population in Oman, so we cannot say that this is solely an “Omani” issue. It is an issue that affects all residents in Oman: Omanis and non-Omanis alike. Second, sixty percent of Oman’s population live in cities and large towns. Third, household consumption (i.e., purchases by household members to meet their everyday needs and maintain their current standard of living) accounts for 35.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).[vii] Compare Oman’s proportion to that of the United States, where household consumption as a percentage of GDP is almost double, at 70 percent.[viii]

Recycling efforts in Oman

Recycling efforts in Oman have until now been scattered and not coordinated. So far, all recycling programmes have been initiated by private entities such as schools, businesses, charitable organizations and non-profit environmental groups.[ix] Most recycling programmes have been only temporary, such as the Dar al Atta’a initiative to collect and recycle used clothing in 2013,[x] or very limited in geographical extent, such as the paper and plastic recycling efforts of local schools in the Muscat area. Lacking ongoing funding and logistical support from the government sector, many of these initiatives were unable to gain traction and eventually had to shut down.[xi]

Recycling rate in Oman is still very low

Recycling rate in Oman is still very low

The four Rs (reduce, reuse, repurpose, and recycle) of waste management have not yet entered the everyday discourse of Oman, but does this mean that they are not part of everyday life in Oman? We think the people of Oman can help us to answer this question. For this purpose, a pilot study was designed, a questionnaire was prepared, and in a series of interviews with individual Omanis we recorded their responses.

The Pilot Survey

The questionnaire covered household consumption habits, food waste and other household waste, and awareness of the four Rs, with particular attention to recycling. The main focus of the survey was on food waste. Of the 21 questions, fifteen were multiple-choice, with write-in options for any needed explanation. There were six open-ended questions, inviting respondents to give their opinion or share something of their experiences and knowledge of the topic. In the tradition of an anthropological study, the survey was specifically designed to be presented orally as a series of questions to individual respondents in a face-to-face interview setting. The questions were written in English but presented in Arabic to most of the respondents. Conversely, responses were given orally in Arabic and recorded in writing either in Arabic and then translated, or directly translated into English as they were written down.

The respondents were all adult Omani nationals, ranging in age from their early twenties to their late fifties. All respondents reside in Muscat, but the majority were originally from other provinces and maintained a strong connection with their home village or town. The respondents represented various occupations such as: university student, homemaker, bank clerk, teacher, taxi driver and police officer. The interviews were carried out in March and April 2016.

The major outcomes of the pilot survey are described in the second part of the article which is available at this link.

References


[i] Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs. n.d. ‘About the Ministry.’ MECA website. https://www.meca.gov.om/ar/module.php?module=pages-showpage&CatID=1&ID=1 (accessed 30/03/2016)

 

[ii] Omanuna Government Entities List. n.d. http://goo.gl/zO4bXZ (accessed 30/03/2016)

 

[iii] Zafar, S. 2015. ‘Solid Waste Management in Oman.’ EcoMena Knowledge Bank. 27 January, 2015 http://www.ecomena.org/solid-waste-oman/ (accessed 20/02/16)

 

[iv] Palanivel, T.M. and H. Sulaiman. 2014. ‘Generation and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.’ ICESD 2014. APCBEE Procedia 10(2014): 96–102 (accessed 20/02/16)

 

[v] World Bank. 2015. ‘What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management.’ http://go.worldbank.org/BCQEP0TMO0 (accessed 22/04/16)

 

[vi] ‘Average Omani family wastes one-third of food.’ Gulf News. 23 June 2012 (accessed 28/02/16) http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/average-omani-family-wastes-one-third-of-food-1.1039366

 

[vii] Central Intelligence Agency. 2016. The World Factbook. ‘Oman’.  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html (accessed 20/02/16)

 

[viii] OECD iLibrary. 2009. ‘Household Consumption,’ National Accounts at a Glance 2009.

http://goo.gl/osZAKR (accessed 29/04/16)

 

[ix] Environment Society of Oman. n.d. ‘Project Recycling’. http://www.eso.org.om/index/pdf/ESO_Project_Recycling_En.pdf (accessed 10/04/16)

 

[x] ‘Dar Al Atta’a Raises RO 12,000 by recycling donated clothes.’ Muscat Daily. 19 August 2013. http://goo.gl/KeRkf1 (accessed 22/02/16)

 

[xi] ‘Ecologists in Oman pitch for recycling waste.’ Times of Oman.  4 August 2014.  http://timesofoman.com/article/38045/Oman/Ecologists-in-Oman-pitch-for-recycling-waste (accessed 22/02/16)