There are several problems confronting the world with respect to its fossil fuels-based energy supply. The first problem relates to the ever-increasing use of fast-depleting conventional sources of energy, like petroleum, coal and natural gas. The contribution of fossil fuels in global energy supplies is above 80 percent. Energy demand will certainly increase manifolds during this century due to industrial and developmental activities as burgeoning world population.
The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere is rising rapidly with use of fossil fuels leading to increasing emission of carbon dioxide which is having a detrimental effect on the climate. Another important issue is the security and stability of energy supply. Most of the fossil fuel reserves are concentrated in politically unstable regions, and increasing the diversity in energy sources is important for many nations to secure a reliable and constant supply of energy.
Energy trends in emerging economies are of global environmental concern as these countries are important contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial activities. Deforestation and the emission of other greenhouse gases, such as methane and NOx, further raise the share of developing countries in total global GHGs emissions. Although per capita levels of greenhouse emissions from energy use are much lower in developing industrial countries, rapid population and economic growth will increase their share of total emissions. The magnitude of these problems underlines the need for improving the efficiency of energy systems and fast-paced development of the renewable energy sector in such countries.
Energy Outlook for the Middle East
Energy use in the Middle East has increased manifolds over the past few decades and will continue its rapid ascent rapidly in the future. The increase in the services that energy provides is necessary and desirable, since energy services are essential for economic growth, improved living standards, and community development applications.
The fast economic growth in the Middle East puts onus on regional powers to devise new energy solutions and establish new and innovative sustainable energy trends. The energy demand in this region will grow rapidly which will have a profound impact on the global energy market. In addition, the region has many locations with high population density, which makes public health vulnerable to the pollution caused by fossil fuels.
Due to the rising share of GHG emissions from the Middle East, it is imperative on all regional countries to promote sustainable energy to significantly reduce GHGs emissions and foster dynamic economic growth. Rising proportion of greenhouse gas emissions from the region’s energy consumption is causing air quality issues and ecological degradation which may further deteriorate environmental sustainability in the region and globally. The adverse impacts of economic and ecological vulnerability would have profound implications for social inclusiveness, as the burden is being unevenly distributed among the countries in the region.
Energy scenarios for the 21st century are shifting away from fossil fuels and towards renewable and sustainable sources of energy. The potential role of renewable energy technologies in transforming Middle East energy sector and addressing climate change concerns is enormous. Renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal can provide sustainable energy, based on a host of readily available, indigenous resources that result in very low emissions of greenhouse gases.