Jordan has promising biomass energy potential in the form of municipal solid wastes, crop residues and organic industrial wastes. Municipal solid wastes represent the best source of biomass in Jordan. In terms of quantity per capita and constituents, the waste generated in Jordan is comparable to most semi-industrialized nations. Agricultural biomass offers a low energy potential due to arid climate in most of the country.
The major biomass energy resources in Jordan are:
- Municipal waste from big cities
- Organic wastes from slaughterhouse, vegetable market, hotels and restaurants.
- Organic waste from agro-industries
- Animal manure, mainly from cows and chickens.
- Sewage sludge and septic.
- Olive mills.
- Organic industrial waste
The total generation of municipal waste in Jordan is estimated at more than 2 million tons per year. In addition, an annual amount of 1.83 million cubic meter of septic and sewage sludge from treatment of 44 million cubic meter of sewage water is generated in Greater Amman area. The potential annual sewage sludge and septic generated in Amman can be estimated at 85,000 tons of dry matter. Jordan also generate significant amount of animal manure due to strong animal population in the form of cattle, sheep, camels, horses etc.
Organic industrial wastes, either liquid or solid, is a good biomass resource and can be a good substrate for biogas generation. Anaerobic digestion is fast gaining popularity as one of the best waste management method for biomass utilization. The use of anaerobic digestion technology for biomassl waste management would be a significant step in Jordan’s emergence as a renewable energy hub in the MENA region. Jordan is planning to implement 40-50 MW of waste-to-energy projects by 2020.
Biogas Plant at Rusaifeh Landfill
The Government of Jordan, in collaboration with UNDP, GEF and the Danish Government, established 1MW biogas plant at Rusaifeh landfill near Amman in 1999. The plant has been successfully operating since its commissioning and has recently been increased to 4MW. The project consists of a system of twelve landfill gas wells and an anaerobic digestion plant based on 60 tons per day of organic wastes from hotels, restaurants and slaughterhouses in Amman. The successful installation of the biogas project has made it a role model in the entire region and several big cities are striving to replicate the model.