Biofuels in Jordan: Perspectives

Jordan has good biofuels production potential in the form of crop residues, agro-industrial wastes and urban wastes. Biomass energy sector in Jordan is slowly, but steadily, developing. As per a recent World Bank report, the country is currently generating 3.5MW of power from biomass resources which represent 0.1% of the total energy demand in the country. However there is no available data on the amount of biofuels produced in Jordan. Jordan produces significant amount of biofuel feedstock in the form of lignocellulosic biomass, used cooking oil, animal tallow, agro-industrial wastes, industrial effluents etc.  In Jordan, transportation sector alone is responsible of 51% of final … Continue reading

Biogas Feedstock in the Middle East

Anaerobic digestion (or biogas technology) is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. It is a reliable technology for the treatment of wet, organic waste.  Organic waste from various sources is biochemically degraded in highly controlled, oxygen-free conditions circumstances resulting in the production of biogas which can be used to produce both electricity and heat. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion.  A wide range of organic wastes are available in the Middle East for anaerobic digestion. In addition to MSW, large quantity of waste, in … Continue reading

Biogas from Animal Wastes

The Middle East and North Africa region has a strong animal population. The livestock sector, in particular sheep, goats and camels, plays an important role in the national economy of regional countries. Millions of animals are imported in MENA each year from around the world. In addition, the region has witnessed very rapid growth in the poultry sector. Animal Waste Management Animal waste is a valuable source of nutrients and renewable energy. However, most of the waste is collected in lagoons or left to decompose in the open which pose a significant environmental hazard. The air pollutants emitted from manure include … Continue reading

Combined Heat and Power Systems

Combined Heat and Power (CHP), or Cogeneration, is the sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy (usually mechanical and thermal) in a single, integrated system. In conventional electricity generation systems, about 35% of the energy potential contained in the fuel is converted on average into electricity, whilst the rest is lost as waste heat. CHP systems uses both electricity and heat and therefore can achieve an efficiency of up to 90%, giving energy savings between 15-40% when compared with the separate production of electricity from conventional power stations and of heat from boilers. CHP systems consist of … Continue reading

Animal Waste Management in Africa

Livestock and poultry production are among the main economic activities in rural as well as urban areas of African countries.The livestock sector, in particular sheep, goats and camels, plays an important role in the national economy of African countries. In addition, the region has witnessed very rapid growth in the poultry sector. Livestock industry and poultry industries, however, are contributing heavily to greenhouse gas emissions and waste crisis in Africa due to the absence of a sustainable animal waste management system. Most of the manure is collected in lagoons or left to decompose in the open which presents a severe … Continue reading

Biomass Potential of Date Palm Wastes

Date palm is one of the principal agricultural products in the arid and semi-arid region of the world, especially Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. There are more than 120 million date palm trees worldwide yielding several million tons of dates per year, apart from secondary products including palm midribs, leaves, stems, fronds and coir. The Arab world has more than 84 million date palm trees with the majority in Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates. Egypt is the world’s largest date producer with annual production of 1.47 million tons of dates in … Continue reading

Biomass Energy in Middle East

The major biomass producing countries in the Middle East are Egypt, Yemen, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. Traditionally, biomass energy has been widely used in rural areas for domestic energy purposes in the Middle East region, especially in Egypt, Yemen and Jordan. Since most of the region is arid or semi-arid, the biomass energy potential is mainly contributed by municipal solid wastes, agricultural residues and industrial wastes. According to conservative estimates, the potential of biomass energy in the MENA region is about 400TWh per year. Municipal solid wastes represent the best source of biomass in Middle East countries. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, … Continue reading

Biomass Energy in Jordan

Jordan has promising biomass energy potential in the form of municipal solid wastes, crop residues and organic industrial wastes.  Municipal solid wastes represent the best source of biomass in Jordan. In terms of quantity per capita and constituents, the waste generated in Jordan is comparable to most semi-industrialized nations. Agricultural biomass offers a low energy potential due to arid climate in most of the country. The major biomass energy resources in Jordan are: Municipal waste from big cities Organic wastes from slaughterhouse, vegetable market, hotels and restaurants. Organic waste from agro-industries Animal manure, mainly from cows and chickens. Sewage sludge … Continue reading

Merits of Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes

Anaerobic digestion is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. It is a reliable technology for the treatment of wet, organic waste.  Organic waste from various sources is biochemically degraded in highly controlled, oxygen-free conditions circumstances resulting in the production of biogas which can be used to produce both electricity and heat. Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to wet organic material and is commonly used for effluent and sewage treatment.  This includes biodegradable waste materials such as … Continue reading

Renewable Energy in Palestine

High population growth, increasing living standards and rapid industrial growth has led to tremendous energy demand in the Palestinian Territories in recent years. The energy situation in Palestine is highly different compared to other countries in the Middle East due to non-availability of natural resource, financial crunch and unstable political condition. Palestine is heavily dependent on Israel for meeting its energy requirements. Almost all petroleum products are imported through Israeli companies.  Israel controls energy imports into Palestine and thus prevents open trade in electricity and petroleum products between Palestine and other countries. Current Scenario Energy is increasingly becoming unaffordable for … Continue reading

Airports: Viable Places for Green Initiatives

Can airports ever be green? This is an overwhelming concept in a carbon-driven, and carbon-intensive industry. The reality is that air travel is often the only realistic option for the movement of both people and cargo in the current lifestyle and demands encompassed with time constraints. This is especially critical for the island nation of Bahrain that is so heavily dependent on air travel in terms of food security. With over 90% of all goods: perishable and manufactured, imported into the nation, this carbon-intensive industry is not going to disappear. Airports themselves, may only contribute 5% to the carbon emissions … Continue reading

Working of a Modern Biogas Plant

Biogas plants are decentralized energy system that can lead to self-sufficiency in heat and power requirements, and at the same time reduces environmental pollution. A biogas plant stabilizes organic waste through natural biological process in the absence of air and transforms waste into biogas and biofertilizer. Such facilities are well-suited to wet organic material and are commonly used for treating biodegradable waste materials such as waste paper, grass clippings, leftover food, sewage and animal waste. The components of a modern biogas plant includes manure collection, anaerobic digester, effluent treatment plant, gas storage, and CHP or electricity generating equipment. Working of … Continue reading