Solid Waste Management in Iraq

Iraq is one of the most populous Arab countries with population exceeding 32 million. Rapid economic growth, high population growth, increasing individual income and sectarian conflicts have led to worsening solid waste management problem in the country. Iraq is estimated to produce 31,000 tons of solid waste every day with per capita waste generation exceeding 1.4 kg per day. Baghdad alone produces more than 1.5 million tons of solid wastes each year.

Rapid increase in waste generation production is putting tremendous strain on Iraqi waste handling infrastructure which have heavily damaged after decades of conflict and mismanagement. In the absence of modern and efficient waste handling and disposal infrastructure most of the wastes are disposed in unregulated landfills across Iraq, with little or no concern for both human health and environment. Spontaneous fires, groundwater contamination, surface water pollution and large-scale greenhouse gas emissions have been the hallmarks of Iraqi landfills.

National Waste Management Plan

The National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007 by collaboration of international waste management specialist. The plan contains the recommendations for development and which explains the background for decisions. The key principles of waste strategy development in Iraq can be summarized as:

  • Sustainable development;
  • Proximately principles and self-sufficiency;
  • Precautionary principles;
  • Polluter pays principle;
  • Producer responsibility;
  • Waste hierarchy;
  • Best practicable environmental option.

The plan generally states that Iraq will build 33 environmentally engineered landfills with the capacity of 600 million m3 in all of the 18 governorates in Iraq by 2027. In addition to constructing landfills the plan also focuses on the collection and transportation, disposable, recycling and reuses systems. Social education was also taken into consideration to ensure provision of educational system which supports the participation of both communities and individuals in waste management in Iraq.

Besides Iraqi national waste management plan, the Iraqi ministry of environment started in 2008 its own comprehensive development program which is part of the ministry of environment efforts to improve environmental situation in Iraq. Ministry of Municipalities and Public Work, in collaboration with international agencies like UN Habitat, USAID, UNICEF and EU, are developing and implementing solid waste management master plans in several Iraqi governorates including Kirkuk, Anbar, Basra, Dohuk, Erbil, Sulaimaniya and Thi Qar.

Promising Developments

Kirkuk was the first city in Iraq to benefit from solid waste management program when foreign forces initiated a solid-waste management program for the city in 2005 to find an environmentally safe solution to the city’s garbage collection and disposal dilemma. As a result the first environmentally engineered and constructed landfill in Iraq was introduced in Kirkuk In February 2007. The 48-acre site is located 10 miles south of Kirkuk, with an expected lifespan of 10–12 years and meets both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and European Union Landfill Directive standards.

The Iraqi city of Basra also benefited from international aid with the completion of the first landfill that is compliant with international environmental standards has been completed. Basra solid waste management program developed by UNICEF will not only restore efficient waste collection systems in the citybut will also create informal “recycling schools” that will help in spreading environmental awareness in in the city’s society by launching a campaign to educate the public about effective waste disposal practices, in addition to that In the long term, the Basra city program plans to establish a regional treatment and disposal facility and initiate street sweeping crews. Basra city waste management program is part of the UNICEF program supported by the European Union to develop Iraq’s water and sanitation sector.

Erbil’s solid waste management master plan has also been developed by UNICEF with funding from the European Union. Recently a contract was signed by the Kurdistan Region's Ministry of Municipalities and Tourism and a Canadian company to recycle the city's garbage which will involve the construction of two recycling plants in the eastern and western outskirts of Erbil.

UNICEF has also developed a master plan to improve the management of solid waste in Dohuk Governorate which has been finalized in June 2011. Solid waste management master plans for Anbar, Sulaimaniya and Thi Qar governorates are also a part of UNICEF and EU efforts to attaining Iraq’s Millennium Development Goal targets of ensuring environmental sustainability by 2015.

Even though all of the effort by the international organizations are at local level and still not enough to solve solid waste management problem in Iraq, however these initiatives have been able to provide a much needed information regarding the size of the issue and valuable lessened learned used later by the Iraqi government to develop the Iraqi national waste management plan with the support of organizations such as UN Habitat, UNDG Iraq Trust Fund and USAID. The Iraqi national waste management plan is expected to ease the solid waste management problem in Iraq in the near future.

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About Ashraf Yahya Alnajjar

Ashraf Yahya Alnajjar is a graduate from University of Technology (Iraq) with a B.Sc.Degree in chemical engineering in 2010. He is currently working as a process engineer in SCIDC which is a company affiliated to Iraqi ministry of industry and minerals. Ashraf is also conducting research in collaboration with the University of Technology (Iraq) in the field of industrial waste water treatment and pollution monitoring.

8 Responses to Solid Waste Management in Iraq

  1. Paciente R. Dandan says:

    it is great to have a copy of this Solid Waste mnagement. as my reference for implementing activities in our locality.

  2. Mahdi Al Salami says:

    From my point of view, the waste management problem in Iraq starts from the lack of governmental legislation and instructions that arrange the responsibilities of recovering process between the local people and municipalities administrations, Also the absence of public awareness of environmental problems because of the unstable security status and the low educational level for a vast majority of people.

    Many investment companies have started a recycling projects in several Iraqi cities but after 1 or 2 years these projects stopped because they couldn’t gain the desired revenue from these investments beside many obstacles that faced in collection and transportation contracts with municipalities .

  3. Rzgar Albewani says:

    great article and information about the situation there,for every project regarding the environment and to reduce the quantity of solid waste it is really important try to educate peoples show responsibility on this issue,we all know that the leaders don’t care that because there is not benefit for them,. to reduce the amount of waste I have a project at the moment with university of Stuttgart-Germany to collect second hand textile/fabric bags in Germany then send to Kurdistan of Iraq and distribute over population to use instead of thin nylon,by this we can reduce if the peoples answer the project. if we don’t care and ignore this issue we will get worse as libanon and brazil. Rzgar Albewani , Iraqi
    BSc.Civil Eng. ,
    MSc.Enviromental process engineering student
    (specialist of “soilid waste and waste water process engineering”
    Stuttgart uni-germany

  4. Sudad says:

    I’m doing masters in power engineering in europe and I have plan to work on this topic as a thesis topic
    “The study of waste-to-electricity problem in the Middle East and Europe”
    I want to know what are the barriers about this topic .. Is it possible to get exact information about specified area in iraq?

    • Salman Zafar says:

      Dear Sudad
      Thanks for your comment.
      Unfortunately we are unable to provide specific information about any particular area of Iraq.
      Best wishes
      Salman Zafar

      Founder, EcoMENA

  5. Pingback: Solid waste in Jordan- Oxfam – Mohammad Aljaradin

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