The Problem of Used Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries are widely used on a mass-scale in all parts of the world.  They act as power sources in a wide-range of equipment and appliances used by households, commerce and industry. Lead-acid batteries finds wide application in all modes of modern transport including cars, trucks, buses, boats, trains, rapid mass-transit systems, recreational vehicles etc.

During power-cuts, lead-acid batteries provide emergency power for critical operations such as air-traffic control towers, hospitals, railroad crossings, military installations, submarines, and weapons systems. All automotive batteries and 95 percent of industrial batteries are lead-acid secondary cells.


Harmful Impacts of Batteries

Lead-acid batteries contain sulphuric acid and large amounts of lead. The acid is extremely corrosive and is also a good carrier for soluble lead and lead particulate. Lead is a highly toxic metal that produces a range of adverse health effects particularly in young children.

Exposure to excessive levels of lead can cause damage to brain and kidney, impair hearing; and lead to numerous other associated problems. On average, each automobile manufactured contains approximately 12 kilograms of lead. Around 96% lead is used in the common lead-acid battery, while the remaining 4% in other applications including wheel balance weights, protective coatings and vibration dampers.

In the developing world, more than 3 million die each year due to lead contamination from processing of used lead-acid batteries, with South America, South Asia and Africa being the highest affected regions.

Collection Strategies

The most common and most efficient method for the collection of lead-acid batteries is through the battery retailer where a discount is given against the purchase price of a new battery provided the customer returns the used battery. In some countries a deposit has to be paid when a new battery is purchased and is only returned to the customer when the battery is returned to the retailer for recycling.

In several parts of the world, reconditioned lead-acid batteries are offered for sale. In the Caribbean islands there is a thriving second-hand automobile trade and thousands of used Japanese cars are imported into the region every year to be broken up for spares. Many of these vehicles have a used lead acid battery, which is removed from the vehicle and shipped to Venezuela for recycling.

An informal collection mechanism is through rag-pickers who scavenge for discarded materials that can be reused or recycled. Rag-pickers scour waste dumps, strip abandoned vehicles and wrecks and even collect batteries that have been used for standby power in domestic houses.

Recycling Methods

Lead is highly toxic metal and once the battery becomes inoperative, it is necessary to ensure its proper collection and eco-friendly recycling. A single lead-acid battery disposed of incorrectly into a municipal solid waste collection system, and not removed prior to entering a resource recovery facility for mixed MSW, could contaminate 25 tonnes of MSW and prevent the recovery of the organic resources within this waste because of high lead level.


Recycling of used lead acid batteries is a complex process

Recycling of used lead-acid batteries, provided it is done in an environmentally sound manner, is important because it keeps the batteries out of the waste stream destined for final disposal. Lead from storage batteries placed in unlined landfills can even contaminate the groundwater. Recycling prevents the emission of lead into the environment and also avoids the energy usage associated with manufacturing lead from virgin resources.

Obtaining secondary lead from used lead-acid batteries can be economically attractive, depending upon the market price of lead. Recovery of lead from batteries is easier and requires significantly less energy than producing primary lead from ore. Recycling also reduces dispersal of lead in the environment and conserves mineral resources for the future when undertaken in an environmentally and socially responsible manner.

Parting Shot

It is to be noted that recycling of used lead acid batteries is not a simple process that can be undertaken in small scale enterprises. Infact lead-acid battery recycling is regarded as one of the worst polluting industries worldwide. Certain control measures should to be taken to prevent adverse impacts to people and the ecology. With exponential rise in consumption of lead-acid batteries, it is imperative on all Middle East nations to put together a viable strategy to tackle the problem of used lead-acid batteries.

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About Salman Zafar

Salman Zafar is the Founder of EcoMENA, and an international consultant, advisor, ecopreneur and journalist with expertise in waste management, waste-to-energy, renewable energy, environment protection and sustainable development. His geographical areas of focus include Middle East, Africa, Asia and Europe. Salman has successfully accomplished a wide range of projects in the areas of biomass energy, biogas, waste-to-energy, recycling and waste management. He has participated in numerous conferences and workshops as chairman, session chair, keynote speaker and panelist. Salman is the Editor-in-Chief of EcoMENA, and is a professional environmental writer with more than 300 popular articles to his credit. He is proactively engaged in creating mass awareness on renewable energy, waste management and environmental sustainability in different parts of the world. Salman Zafar can be reached at or

17 Responses to The Problem of Used Lead-Acid Batteries

  1. RAD says:

    Do you know of any companies currently providing responsible battery recycling/disposal in Bahrain?

  2. vittorio cariglia says:

    In Italy,as former manager in the oil and metallurgical sector of the group ENI,I establisched a Consortium for the collection and the recycling of all the lead batteries,automotive and industrial batteries.The consortium was composed from the representative of secondary lead producers and the new batteries producers.I proposed a law which obliges all batteries producers to pay into the consortium every year an amount of money proportional to the sale of new batteries.By this financial ressources it has been possible support all the network of collecting operators and the correct lead recycling by smelting.Vittorio Cariglia

  3.   if the melting of old batteries and lead compound    you have heavy slag  and you have bag filter powder    you have not successful in recycling  and you destory resources


    In the Name of God

    Invention Know How For Sale

    Attention: Lead Acid Battery Producers and/or Recycling Companies

    Introduction to a new recycling system that allows you to recover twice the amount of lead from used batteries and become number one in production and recycling lead acid batteries.

    I have made a compound that allow extraction of total lead in used batteries, lead oxide, lead ore/concentrate, and all other lead compounds.  You can extract 100% of the existing lead up to the last atom from the first smelting process of any lead product, compound, or concentrate.

    When lead acid batteries or other lead compounds are mixed with my compound for smelting, you will have no formation of heavy lead slag or powder in bag filters.  My compound turns complete lead content 100% accessible.

    My compound has been successfully tested for 22 months in all common kiln and has proved its ability to extract 100% lead content up to the last atom from any lead material/compound.

    I am prepared to setup a pilot test in any form or place acceptable to your expert(s) and/or representative(s) to prove the effectiveness and performance of my compound.

    Contact Information:

    Seyed Mojtaba Hoseyni Javadi

    Address: Mojaheden Islam Avenue, Shahid Fayaz Bakhsh Street, Karimi Alley, Zarafshan Dead End, No 4, Apt. 2, Tehran, Iran

    Phone: 98-21-33 56 11 09

    Mobile: 98-9372261770




    New furnaces to recycle old batteries

    Capacity of 1 to100 ton

    The maximum temperature 600 c

    Heat radiation  indirectly

    Melting time%25 of %100 other furnaces

    Fuel consumption%25 of %100 other furances

    The furnace slag is not

    The furnace is not pollution

    The melting furnace of coke not used






  4. Dr Noman says:

    What Env Impacts & mitigation measures are required for Lead Acid batteries recyclers

    • Salman Zafar says:

      Dear Dr. Noman

      Thanks for your query. Unfortunately we havent explored the mentioned topics yet. However if there is any specific requirement, we may interested in conducting the study.

      Best wishes

      Salman Zafar

      Founder, EcoMENA

  5. Andrew says:

    Your blog was quite useful and informative. Yes one has to be very careful while recycling lead acid batteries. The rate at which these lead acid batteries are being used and disposed,I fear for our planet and believe that recycling of this item will do our earth much needed favour.

  6. muluh promie says:

    in a country like cameroon where the respect of norms is still a far reaching dream, i fear one day the environment would reach a level that it can not contain life again

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  8. Thomas Nij Tugo says:

    I wanted to know if the waste from recycling lead-acid batteries called lead slag is toxic and dangerous to people handling it and selling it to foreign buyers. And to use your words what “control measures should to be taken to prevent adverse impacts to people and the ecology?”

    Kindly answer.

    Thank you.

    Thomas Nij Tugo

    • Salman Zafar says:

      Dear Thomas

      Thanks for your interest in my article and sorry for late reply.

      Lead is inherently toxic and should be handled with great caution by battery recycling workers, especially in developing countries. Lead is a source of major health problems among all age groups. This article will provide more insights into this menace

      Regarding potential control measures, please refer to the guidelines of Basel Convention at

      Hope I have been of some help.


      Best wishes

      Salman Zafar


      Founder, EcoMENA

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