Waste-to-energy is the use of modern combustion and biological technologies to recover energy from urban wastes. The conversion of waste material to energy can proceed along three major pathways – thermochemical, biochemical and physicochemical. Thermochemical conversion, characterized by higher temperature and conversion rates, is best suited for lower moisture feedstock and is generally less selective for products. On the other hand, biochemical technologies are more suitable for wet wastes which are rich in organic matter. 1. Thermochemical Conversion of Waste The three principal methods of thermochemical conversion of MSW are combustion (in excess air), gasification (in reduced air), and pyrolysis (in … Continue reading →
Municipal solid waste is a poor-quality fuel and its pre-processing is necessary to convert it into fuel pellets to improve its consistency, storage properties, handling characteristics, combustion behaviour and calorific value. Technological improvements are taking place in the realms of advanced source separation of MSW, resource recovery and production of MSW fuel pellets in both existing and new plants for this purpose. There has been an increase in global interest in the preparation of MSW fuel pellets or Refuse Derived Fuel (or RDF) so let us take a close look at this interesting alternative fuel. Pelletization of Muncipal Solid Waste … Continue reading →
During the exploration and production of oil, huge amounts of drilling wastes are produced in the form of mud and cuttings. As per conservative estimates, around 0.37 kg of drilling wastes is generated for every barrel of oil produced. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has estimated that approximately 1.21 barrels of total drilling wastes are generated for every foot drilled. The Middle East oil and gas industry has made a lot of effort in order to reduce the environmental impact of their activities; modern drilling methods such as horizontal drilling, navigating the drill bits three dimensionally through the earth, contacting … Continue reading →
The population in the MENA countries has doubled during the last 30 years (from ca. 110m in 1980 to almost 220m in 2010). As per conservative estimates, the rate of urbanisation in the MENA countries will exceed 70% five years from today (average for all developing countries: 54%). The proceeding urbanisation and the population increase involve several problems and challenges for the national governments and also for the cement industry. The cement production of countries in the MENA region has almost tripled during the last 15 years up to approximately 500m tons Since the start of national revolts and demonstrations in … Continue reading →
Cement production in MENA region has almost tripled during the last 15 years, mainly on account of high population growth rate, rapid urbanization, increasing industrialization and large-scale infrastructural development. The growth of cement industry in MENA is marked by factors that are directly connected with sustainability, energy efficiency and raw material supply. Although the factors differ from country to country and cannot be generalized, there are major concerns regarding shortage of raw materials, GHG emissions, dependence on fossil fuels and lack of investment in technological innovations. For the MENA cement sector, key points for an environment-friendly industry are use of … Continue reading →
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