Overview of Composting Methods

The composting process is a complex interaction between the waste and the microorganisms within the waste. The microorganisms that carry out this process fall into three groups: bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are a form of fungi-like bacteria that break down organic matter. The first stage of the biological activity is the consumption of easily available sugars by bacteria, which causes a fast rise in temperature. The second stage involves bacteria and actinomycetes that cause cellulose breakdown. The last stage is concerned with the breakdown of the tougher lignins by fungi.

Types of Composting

The methodology of composting can be categorized into three major segments—anaerobic composting, aerobic composting, and vermicomposting.

In anaerobic composting, the organic matter is decomposed in the absence of air. Organic matter may be collected in pits and covered with a thick layer of soil and left undisturbed six to eight months. The compost so formed may not be completely converted and may include aggregated masses.

Aerobic composting is the process by which organic wastes are converted into compost or manure in presence of air and can be of different types. The most common is the Heap Method, where organic matter needs to be divided into three different types and to be placed in a heap one over the other, covered by a thin layer of soil or dry leaves. This heap needs to be mixed every week, and it takes about three weeks for conversion to take place.

The process is same in the Pit Method, but carried out specially constructed pits. Mixing has to be done every 15 days, and there is no fixed time in which the compost may be ready. Berkley Method uses a labor-intensive technique and has precise requirements of the material to be composted. Easily biodegradable materials, such as grass, vegetable matter, etc., are mixed with animal matter in the ratio of 2:1. Compost is usually ready in 15 days.

Vermicomposting involves use of earthworms as natural and versatile bioreactors for the process of conversion. It is carried out in specially designed pits where earthworm culture also needs to be done. Vermicomposting is a precision-based option and requires overseeing of work by an expert. It is also a more expensive option (O&M costs are high).

However, unlike the above two options, it is a completely odorless process making it a preferred solution in residential areas. It also has an extremely high rate of conversion, so quality of the end product is very high with rich macro and micronutrients. The end product also has the advantage that it can be dried and stored safely for a longer period of time.


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About Salman Zafar

Salman Zafar is a renowned consultant, advisor, entrepreneur and writer with expertise in waste management, waste-to-energy, renewable energy, environment protection and sustainable development. He is the Founder of EcoMENA, in addition to being the CEO of consultancy firm BioEnergy Consult. Salman has successfully accomplished a wide range of projects in the areas of biomass energy, biogas, waste-to-energy and waste management. He has participated in numerous conferences and workshops as chairman, session chair, keynote speaker and panelist. Salman is a professional writer and is proactively engaged in creating mass awareness on renewable energy, waste management and environmental sustainability. He can be reached at salman@ecomena.org or salman@bioenergyconsult.com
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One Response to Overview of Composting Methods

  1. lyseconcept says:

    Both items will come in contradiction of this summary.
    the composting takes place by raising the temperature of the medium. That must be controlled, otherwise the compost immediately stops and turns into mud.
    composting is done by alternating wetting and drought. Too much, not enough, composting immediately stops and turns into mud.
    Humus composting biodegradation of the organic material is a natural transformation process of organic material breakdown. That must be at the stage of living organic matter remaining. Every remaining living organic matter follows its own chain of destruction. Any mixture of organic material having a different chain destruction, transforms the entire mud. Any addition of organic matter in a state of residual mud living organic matter in a state of transformation, stops this natural transformation to follow the immediate transformation mud.
    All compost out of the middle, dried, becomes a dry mud. buried he has no vocation to fertilize the plant. this is the dry mud on his humidification become wet mud that will suffocate the root complex.

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