Is Kiribati The First To Go – How Climate Change Is Threatening Life On The Small Island Nations

Life on an island in the South Pacific has long been considered an idyllic location. But that once reality is becoming a daunting nightmare for the people of Kiribati (pronounced Ke-ree-bas). This nation consists of three archipelagos in the centre of the Pacific Ocean. The total land mass is approximately 811km2 and is spread across 3.5 million kmof ocean. Of the 33 island and atolls, two-thirds of these land masses are inhabited. The total population of 120,000 people predominantly live on the main island, Tarawa.

how climate change is impacting Kiribati

With the growing trends in the changing global climate, this small Pacific community is subjected to an ever increasing number of storms and cyclones of increasing ferocity (intensity). The rising sea waters mean these is life threatening salt water intrusion of the lands. The available fresh water has diminished to such an extent that fresh water needs to brought into the region and the only edible plants are those grown in containers. Other climatic factors are being impacted such as increase temperatures and decreasing precipitation in the region. These factors enhance the salinity of the local waters.

There is the looming threat of total inundation of these islands with rising sea level. Many of these islands will all be inundated by 2050  because of the changes in the climate across the globe. The changes are already visible and real , impacting the lives and wellbeing of the people. Their health is impacted, their ability to grow their own foods, and the severe shortage of fresh water are all very real.

As well as losing their meagre land resources, their coral reefs, their fishing grounds are also subjected to increasing seawater temperatures. It is not just the physical and climatological impacts, but the health of the people is also targeted. The non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and the associated high rate of obesity is a tragic picture. Then with crowded living conditions and the scarcity of fresh water, communicable diseases are a greater threat. Such diseases as TB,  Hepatitis B and leprosy are all on the rise among the island community.

There is also a major shift from traditional foods in the diet, so malnutrition is very real, especially among the children. The life expectancy is dropping while the child mortality rate is increasing. The statistics are the worst of all the 20 Oceanic nations.

climate change impacts in Kiribati

The people of Kiribati are stretched to their limit with the drought persisting through June and July this year (2022)  over this island nation. The lack of fresh rainwater, means that their limited local water supplies are becoming brackish and extremely unacceptable for the community. Lack of fresh drinkable water threatens the people with poor hygiene which results in poor health throughout the island communities.

The scarcity of water, means the people have to forfeit basic hygiene  from simple hand washing to poor food preparation. The immediate impact is on the children with increasing occurrence of diarrhoea, as well as skin infections, and even malnutrition. This is again, a situation of those who have contributed the least to causes of climate change are experiencing the more extreme impacts of this phenomena.

Climate Change: The Global Effect On Environment Collapse

Global warming seriously threatens the existence of half of all plant and animal species in the regions of the planet with particularly diverse flora and fauna. If greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere remain at the current level, by 2080 50% of plant and animal species may disappear, in particular in Lake Baikal and in the Amazon. Endangered elephants and large pandas, as well as tens of thousands of plants, insects, and other living organisms that form the basis of life on the planet, are threatened with extinction in a number of regions.


The study was conducted by the British University of East Anglia and the James Cook University of Australia. Scientists have studied the influence of climatic conditions on 80 thousand species of plants and animals in 33 regions of the planet, characterized by unique and diverse flora and fauna. Among them, in addition to Baikal and the Amazon, are the desert of Namibia, the Himalayas, Madagascar, and the south of Chile. You can read more about this and other problems in this climate change essay. This free essays source will help you learn more about serious environmental changes and issues. Only by learning more about climate change can you understand how to deal with it.

What would be the effects of climate change on the quality of life of future generations? And how is global warming affecting children’s health today?

Environmental fears such as climate change are seriously affecting health, especially elderly people, infants, patients with chronic diseases, as well as those whose profession is associated with hard physical work in the open air, suffer from the effects of global warming. But children are especially affected because their bodies and immune systems develop in adverse conditions. Deterioration of mental health is yet another consequence of environmental problems prevalent in the 21st century.

Based on 41 key indicators of immediate and long-term health threats from climate change, college experts identified the 4 most serious for the child’s body.

1. Infectious diseases

Bacteria, pathogens that cause diarrhea, develop especially well in humid and warm climates. Warming is already being felt in the Baltic countries and in the northeastern United States. The most dangerous bacteria are Vibrio cholerae: climate change increases the likelihood of outbreaks of the disease in those countries in which it has not previously occurred.

The same applies to viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as the causative agent of dengue fever. Global warming allows mosquitoes to spread north. According to the report, almost half of the world’s population is currently forced to live with the risk of developing dengue.

2. Malnutrition

An increase in temperature affects yield. The research paper shows that around the world, 4% less corn is harvested, 6% less winter wheat, 3% less soy, and 4% less rice compared to 1989. The consequences of malnutrition for children are stunted growth, weakened immune systems, and developmental disabilities.

3. Allergies

The most common chronic disease. Due to climate change, flowering periods of plants are lengthening, which increases the amount of pollen.

4. Air pollution and rising temperatures

People will breathe “poisoned” air, which will affect lung function and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Extreme heat is another factor in increasing mortality. According to statistics, the number of victims in hot seasons is comparable to the number of deaths from the annual influenza epidemic. The year 2018 set a record when “220 million people over the age of 65 years around the world were exposed to particularly high temperatures for a long period of time.”



Those who were wondering is climate change real should know that it is affecting our lives right now. At the same time, the hypothesis was taken that climate warming will be 4.5 degrees compared with the pre-industrial era. Assuming that this indicator can be kept at two degrees, as laid down in the Paris Climate Agreement, the risk of extinction of plants and animals will still be very high. In this case, about 25% of plant and animal species in the studied regions will be threatened with extinction.

What to Know About Sustainable Software Development

As climate change concerns continue to increase, it is becoming mandatory to minimize carbon emissions and adopt sustainable practices to save the planet. The Information Technology field has the potential to cut carbon emissions and contribute to alleviating the current climate crisis. Since software plays a significant role in energy consumption, software engineers are going green and adopting sustainable ways of developing technologies with minimal negative environmental impact using closed and open-source databases.

Here is everything you need to know about sustainable software development and tips for building efficient and eco-friendly green software.

Tips for Creating Green Software

What is Sustainable Software Development?

Sustainable software development (also known as sustainable software engineering) is an approach that focuses on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability in all stages of software development, starting from software design to implementation and software development. It aims to minimize the adverse effects of applications and hosting infrastructure on the environment. Besides helping save the planet, sustainable software development is excellent for businesses as it reduces overall costs and osts the business’s bottom line.

Tips for Creating Green Software

Just like computer hardware, software can cause environmental harm. It affects hardware’s energy consumption by influencing its operations and impacting carbon emissions. On the same note, the software development process can be highly energy-intensive, which calls for optimization of energy consumption when creating and using the software.

Below are a few tips for developing green/sustainable software without compromising functionality.

1. Reduce Data Usage

More data necessary to run an application means more energy for recalling, accessing, and storing data. To realize sustainability, minimize the data to be exchanged and place expiration data on stored data. Creating a streamlined cache policy reduces the data needed and retained in the background. Similarly, use smaller images and media whenever possible as they require less energy to maintain than larger media forms with higher resolutions.

2. Select Ideal Coding Language

According to a 2018 study, the type of coding language used to write software can affect the software’s energy usage in development. The programming language dictates how fast a program responds and how much memory it needs to carry out tasks or recall information. The two factors can impact the amount of energy necessary to run the program, influencing carbon emissions.

While the research has unclear findings, you need to be up to date with recent studies in this field to understand better whether creating software with a specific language can lower the software’s environmental impact.

3. Remove Unused Features and Loops

Unused features litter the software, make it more challenging to use, and utilizes unnecessary energy, lowering the software’s lifespan. Removing these features improves energy efficiency and makes the software useful for longer.

Developers should also look for loops that eat up energy without achieving specific goals successfully. For example, a dead website link that tries to reach a site no longer accessible causes energy waste. Removing unnecessary loops reduces the amount of energy the software draws and makes the program process more efficient.

benefits of common data environment

4. Monitor Software Energy Usage

Tracking the software’s energy consumption in real-time allows you to identify areas you can optimize to lower energy consumption and produce fewer emissions. You can be more specific, monitor energy usage of particular tasks and applications, and adjust for sustainability accordingly. By monitoring and charting energy consumption, you can measure the progress of your efforts and energy efficiency as you improve your designs.

The first step towards sustainable software development is prioritizing energy efficiency alongside software functionality, scalability, security, and accessibility during development. With the above information and an open source database, software engineers can make a difference by building green software which provides businesses with a competitive advantage while promoting environmental sustainability.

Medical Wastes in GCC

There has been a growing awareness of the need for safe management of medical waste all over the world. Medical Waste are generated by all health sectors including hospitals, laboratories, diagnostic and research centers, dental and medical clinics, blood banks, mortuaries and autopsy centres, veterinary hospitals, industrial laboratories etc. Medical wastes which pose the greatest risk to human health are infectious waste (or hazardous medical waste) which constitutes 15 – 25 percent of total healthcare waste.

Infectious wastes may include all waste items that are contaminated with or suspected of being contaminated with body fluids such as blood and blood products, used catheters and gloves, cultures and stocks of infectious agents, wound dressings, nappies, discarded diagnostic samples, contaminated materials (swabs, bandages, and gauze), disposal medical devices, contaminated laboratory animals etc.

The quantity of waste produced in a hospital depends on the level of national income and the type of facility concerned. A university hospital in a high-income country can produce up to 10 kg of waste per bed per day, all categories combined.

Medical Waste in the GCC

Healthcare sector in the Gulf Cooperation Council continues to grow at a very rapid pace, which in turn has led to big increase in the quantity of waste generated by hospitals, clinics and other establishments. According to conservative estimates, more than 150 tons of medical waste is generated in GCC countries every day.

Saudi Arabia leads the pack with daily healthcare waste generation of more than 80 tons. As far as UAE is concerned, approximately 21.5 tons per day of medical waste are generated in the UAE, out of which 12 tons per day is produced by Abu Dhabi alone. Kuwait produces around 12 tons while Bahrain generates 7 tons of hazardous medical waste daily.

These figures are indicative of the magnitude of the problem faced by municipal authorities in dealing with medical waste disposal problem across GCC. The growing amount of medical wastes is posing significant public health and environmental challenges in major cities of the region. The situation is worsened by improper disposal methods, insufficient physical resources, and lack of research on medical waste management.

Medical Waste Generation in Some GCC Countries

Country Medical Wastes (tons per day)
Saudi Arabia 80
UAE 21.5
Kuwait 12
Bahrain 7

Need for Medical Waste Management Strategy

Improper management of healthcare wastes from hospitals, clinics and other facilities in GCC countries pose occupational and public health risks to patients, health workers, waste handlers, haulers and general public. It may also lead to contamination of air, water and soil which may affect all forms of life. In addition, if waste is not disposed of properly, members of the community may have an opportunity to collect disposable medical equipment (particularly syringes) and to resell these materials which may cause dangerous diseases.

According to World Health Organization, hospital-associated infections (HAI) affect approximately 5% of hospitalized patients.The complexity of infectious healthcare waste problems and the recent rise in the incidence of diseases such as AIDS, SARS and Hepatitis B open up greater risk of contamination through mishandling and unsafe disposal practices.

Inadequate waste management can cause environmental pollution, growth and multiplication of vectors like insects, rodents and worms and may lead to the transmission of diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and AIDS through injuries from syringes and needles contaminated with human. In addition to health risks associated with poor management of medical waste, consideration must also be given to the impact on environment, especially to the risks of pollution of water, air and soil.

The situation is further complicated by the extreme climatic and environmental conditions of the region, which makes medical waste disposal in developing countries more challenging. Since medical waste is more dangerous than ordinary trash, it is imperative on governments and private companies in GCC countries to devise a successful hospital waste management program and make use of modern medical waste treatment technologies to avoid the spread of diseases and to protect the environment.

الإسلام – في انسجام مع الطبيعة

تعد الازمه الايكولوجيه (البيئيه) في العالم واحده من اكبرالتحديات في عصرنا الحالي. انزل الله الكتب المقدسه من خلال الانبياء و المرسليين و التي جاءت  بالبشرى والتحذيرات في ان معا, وفي ضوء ذلك يتصرف الناس بطريقة الصلاح والعدل.يتحدث الله  في القرأن الكريم عن خلق كل شيئ في ميزان ويحذر من اي عبث في هذا التوازن يؤدي الى عواقب وخيمه. هذا لا ينطبق فقط على العالم من حولنا وانما على انفسنا وارواحنا حيث لا يفرق الاسلام  عالم الانسان من عالم الطبيعه.

impact of environment on mental health

هنالك اكثر من 6000 ايه في القرأن الكريم  منها اكثرمن  500 ايه تتعامل مع الظواهر الطبيعيه. يدعو  الله تبارك وتعالى , البشر مرارا وتكرارا للتفكر باياته والتي تشمل كل جانب من جوانب الطبيعه كالاشجار و الجبال والبحار و الحيوانات والطيور و النجوم والشمس والقمر و قلوبنا. يحتوي الفقه الاسلامي على لوائح متعلقه بالحفاظ على موارد المياه الشحيحه , تنص هذه التشريعات على الحفاظ على الارض, ولديها قوانين خاصه لانشاء المراعي و الاراضي الرطبه و الاحزمه الخضراء وقوانين لحمايه الحياه البريه والحفاظ عليها.

تعتبر زراعة شجره صدقة جاريه, وعملا مرغوبا حيث يكافئ زارع الشجره ما دامت  المخلوقات بكافه اشكالها تستفيد منها. وكان النبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم قدحدد 30  كلم حول مدينته المدينه المنوره بالمنطقة محميه والتي يحظر فيها قطع الاشجار ضمن حدودها.  وقد وصف الرسول اماطه الاذى عن الطريق بالصدقة وهي نوع من انواع الايمان. كما و نهى الرسول عن قطع اشجار الارز  في الصحراء حيث تقدم الظل والمأوى للحيوانات. هناك عدد لايحصى من اقوال النبي محمدصلى الله عليه وسلم و التي تحض  على الحفاظ عى الموارد الطبيعيه وخاصه الماء. انه يدعونا الى ما اراد الله لنا ان نكون و هو التناغم و الوئام مع الطبيعه.

لدى البشر القدره على تدمير العالم اكثر بكثيرمن اي نوع اخر من انواع الكائنات الحيه.  لدينا ايضا القدره على التمسك بالعالم المادي . يؤمن الاسلام بان جميع النفوس البشريه تاتي من الجنه و في نهايه الوقت  كل نفس سوف تدخل إما الجنه وإما النار. ويمكننا أن نحول العالم الى ما هو اكثر سخونه و تدميرا  او يمكننا ان نحوله الى شيئ اكثر هدوءا و يشبه الجنه ويعكس الغرض الالهي لوجودنا في هذا الكون.

مع حديث عظيم من أحاديثه صلى الله عليه وسلم (إن قامت الساعة وبيد أحدكم فسيلة فإن استطاع أن لا يقوم حتى يغرسها فليفعل) يتوضح لدينا مدى اهميه  مواصله مجهود  المرء وتمسكه بالامل ليكون بسلام مع الارض حتى النهايه.


سلام عبدالكريم عبابنه

مهندسه مدنية في شركة المسار المتحده للمقاولات – مهتمه في مجال البيئه و الطاقة المتجدده

How Easy Can Be To Store Data With A Data Environment

The term data environment means an environment where data is collected, stored, and analyzed using computer technology. This is quite different to a traditional office environment where people are hired to use their brains, rather than their fingers, to achieve results. In today’s information age, organizations increasingly need to find ways of collecting, storing and analyzing vast amounts of data.

benefits of common data environment

This environment can be created by setting up a specialized room, or space, in your company, such as a data center or an IT department. In addition to this, you should ensure that the appropriate software and hardware are available for the tasks you have been asked to perform. You should also set up policies and procedures so that employees follow the correct processes.

To ensure the data environment is working effectively, you must monitor how it is being used and how it affects the overall performance of your organization. You can do this by reviewing statistics, for example, or by monitoring the productivity of each individual who works in the data environment.

Data Environment can benefit a company

A data environment such as Delphix enables you to collect, store and analyze data. As data volumes grow, so does the need to store and manage it. The ability to analyze data gives you an insight into how your organization is performing. When you know exactly what you are doing wrong and how you can improve, you will be able to fix problems and implement solutions that will help the business.

You can also use data to identify patterns in customer buying behavior. You can then adapt the products or services you offer to meet customer needs and increase sales.

Does the data environment cost a lot of money?

In most cases, setting up a data environment is fairly straightforward. Once you have designed your environment, you can purchase the necessary equipment and hire the people you require.

However, there are many factors that affect the total cost of running a data environment. These include the size of your organization, the volume of data you wish to manage and the complexity of the analysis you are conducting. A good data environment consultant will be able to provide you with a detailed cost estimate.

Types of data environments

There are five main types of data environment: central data environments, decentralized data environments, public data environment, private data environment and hybrid data environment.

  • Central data environments: Used when there is a single location where the majority of the data is stored. An example of this is a centralized data center.
  • Decentralized data environments: Typically used when the data needs to be accessed from a number of different locations. For example, a business might collect data from employees’ personal computers and store it on a network file server.
  • Public Data Environment: Data environment used by a business for public access. These data environments are commonly associated with consumer-facing web sites such as retail sites, search engines, etc.
  • Private Data Environment: Data environment used by a business for internal or secure access. The most common example is the enterprise database that stores sensitive business information.
  • Hybrid Data Environment: Data environment that allows for both public and private access. An example of this type of data environment is a web application that is accessible to the public via a public URL but has limited functionality that requires authentication.

Role of security in Data Environments

There are two main goals that data environments must serve. These are:

  • to protect against loss or damage to data, and
  • to provide assurance to business partners that the data is properly secured.

In addition, data environments must be resilient and must be able to support the business’s growth and expansion plans.

To achieve these goals, data environments should meet certain minimum requirements. For instance, they need to be able to store a reasonable amount of data in a reasonable amount of time. Data environments also need to be capable of performing basic functions such as indexing, searching, sorting, and retrieving data. Finally, data environments should be able to provide audit logs and audit trails for historical analysis.

Data environments play an integral role in ensuring the integrity of business data and protecting it from unauthorized users. To this end, the following features are required of data environments.

  • Data Security: Ensuring that data is encrypted while in transit and at rest and limiting the exposure of data.
  • Data Protection: Ensuring that data is backed up and stored in a safe location.
  • Compliance: Maintaining compliance with laws and regulations governing privacy and security.
  • Resilience: Ensuring that data can be accessed and used in the event of an outage.
  • Backup: Ensuring that backups are performed as frequently as possible.
  • Integrity: Ensuring that data is accurate, complete, and reliable.
  • Availability: Ensuring that data is available to users at all times.

Types of data security

The different types of data security include:

  1. Physical Data Security: The process of securing a physical location where data is stored. This includes such things as restricting access to the physical building, restricting access to the physical storage facility, and enforcing access controls.
  2. Logical Data Security: The process of securing data within the confines of a computer system. Logical security can be implemented using both hardware and software.

Data Security impacts the design of Data Environment

In a data environment, there are two main concerns:

  • Security: Ensuring that data is properly secured and protected from unauthorized access.
  • Data Privacy: Ensuring that users’ personal data remains private.

Because the two goals are related to each other, it is critical that the data environment address both of these issues. To this end, the data environment needs to have the following components.

  • Authentication and Authorization: Ensuring that only authorized users can access data.
  • Encryption: Ensuring that data is properly secured while in transit and at rest.
  • Auditing: Ensuring that access to data is properly monitored and recorded.
  • Backup: Ensuring that data is properly backed up and stored in a safe location.
  • Compliance: Ensuring that data is accurate, complete, and reliable.
  • Integrity: Ensuring that data is available to users at all times.
  • Availability: Ensuring that data is available to users at all times.
  • Security-by-Design: Ensuring that security is built in to the data environment.

Common Data Environment

We use ‘common data environment’ (CDE) for referring to a single, common data store across multiple data sources, such as CRM, eCRM, business applications and data warehouses. CDE offers a common data base, and this allows integration between different applications. In addition, it allows multiple applications to share and synchronize data efficiently.


CDE should not be confused with other commonly used terms such as “data warehouse” or “data mart.” The term data warehouse usually refers to a complete data solution that provides the capability to perform complex queries across several databases. Data marts are usually a subset of information that is extracted from large data stores. A data mart is generally used to provide a specific set of data for a particular application. A CDE is designed to support the requirements of various applications within a specific organizational structure.

The main advantage of a CDE is that it provides a centralized database to hold the customer information, which is accessed by many applications. This reduces the requirement to store and maintain multiple copies of the same customer information across different applications. As customers often use multiple channels to interact with a company, having a single point of reference to record interactions helps reduce duplication of effort and data entry.

Types of CDE

A CDE can be a standalone data repository, or a part of the core business applications. It can also be a separate data warehouse or a subset of information contained in the data warehouse.

There are four types of CDEs based on their structure and the underlying technology they are implemented on:

  1. Common Data Access Layer (CDAL): It provides a common interface and enables the applications to access the data from the data source.
  2. Common Data Repository (CDR): It is a logical data repository.
  3. Common Data Store (CDS): It is a physical data store and is a layer of abstraction that hides the differences in the underlying storage media.
  4. Common Business Application Infrastructure (CBAPI): It is a framework that supports the development of the business applications.

Benefits of using CDE

  • Data is managed at the highest level, in a consistent manner.
  • Data is easily shared and synchronized among the applications.
  • Centralized, updated information is always available.
  • Changes to the data in a CDE are propagated to all the applications.
  • Data is stored in one location for quick retrieval.
  • There is no need to duplicate or replicate data.
  • It is easy to expand the CDE by adding new applications, or by adding more data sources.

Disadvantages of using CDE

  • CDEs are expensive, requiring specialized skills and tools.
  • They may require significant changes to the existing business systems.
  • They may be difficult to implement.
  • It may be difficult to manage and control data within the CDE.

CDE is a powerful tool, and it has tremendous benefits for any organization. However, implementing a CDE requires a lot of planning and careful planning.

Morocco Aims To Double Electric Vehicle Production In Two Years

Morocco aims to double its electric car production by 2024, Morocco World News reports. According to Ryad Mezzour, the Moroccan minister for trade and industry, the country is on track to start manufacturing as many as 100,000 electric cars per year within the next two to three years. Fortunately, Morocco’s existing industrial facilities alone are capable of reaching this lofty goal, although helpful international investment may also be on the table in coming years.

Electric Vehicle Production in Morocco

The need for electric vehicle production

Ramping up electric car production is becoming increasingly essential to maintain a competitive edge in a global market. Net zero carbon emission commitments, a sustainable goal pledged by countries around the world, now mean combustion engine vehicles no longer have a bright future in terms of market outlook.

The European Union, for example, Morocco’s largest trade partner, has voted to ban imports of fossil-fuel cars from 2035. Although Morocco is already the biggest carmaking hub in Africa, the country needs to prioritize the shift to electric vehicles in order to stay ahead. As such, Morocco’s now aiming for an electric vehicle production target of one million units per year, as well as to increase national auto part manufacturing in order to reduce dependence on imports.

Saving money while helping the environment

Better for the environment and offering lower servicing and maintenance costs, electric cars are becoming an increasingly popular choice across the world. Although Moroccan authorities have yet to roll-out financial incentives to further increase electric vehicle adoption, other countries do offer these as a way of boosting clean energy use.

The United States, for example, offers a $7,500 federal income tax credit for all new electric cars purchased in or after 2010. A number of states and utility companies also offer hundred-dollar rebates for at-home electric vehicle charger installation. Although a home charger is an ample investment (around $1,300 in total), it can help people save time and money by being able to charge their electric vehicles without leaving home. For standard 240-volt home outlets, plug-in chargers are ideal. Fortunately, plug-in charging systems can be easily upgraded without the need for an electrician.

Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles

Morocco’s cobalt reserves attractive to electric car manufacturers

International car manufacturers are already favoring Morocco for the country’s ample cobalt reserves, a crucial material used to produce electric vehicle batteries. In fact, Morocco is home to the 11th largest cobalt reserves in the world. In particular, last year, Groupe Renault, the French multinational car manufacturer, partnered with Managem Group, a mining company, to secure a cobalt supply from Morocco. The agreement states Managem Group will provide Renault with 5000 tonnes of cobalt sulfate for seven years. The first shipment will be provided in 2025.

Car exports also play a key role in Morocco’s status as Africa’s auto manufacturing leader — cars are the country’s second biggest exporting sector with exports expected to reach $5.6 billion by the end of 2022. And, with the boost to electric vehicle production, Morocco’s transition  to green, zero-emission vehicles is set to be a success.

Energy from Wastes via Thermal Route

Thermal (or thermochemical) conversion systems consist of primary conversion technologies which convert the waste into heat or gaseous and liquid products, together with secondary conversion technologies which convert these products into the more useful forms of energy being heat and electricity.

A wide range of technologies exists to convert the energy stored in wastes to more useful forms of energy. These technologies can be classified according to the principal energy carrier produced in the conversion process. Carriers are in the form of heat, gas, liquid and/or solid products, depending on the extent to which oxygen is admitted to the conversion process (usually as air).

The three principal methods of thermall conversion corresponding to each of these energy carriers are combustion in excess air, gasification in reduced air, and pyrolysis in the absence of air.


Conventional combustion technologies raise steam through the combustion of wastes. This steam may then be expanded through a conventional turbo-alternator to produce electricity. Fluidized bed combustors (FBC), which use a bed of hot inert material such as sand, are a more recent development. Bubbling FBCs are generally used at 10-30 MWth capacity, while Circulating FBCs are more applicable at larger scales.


Gasification of wastes takes place in a restricted supply of oxygen and occurs through initial devolatilization of the biomass, combustion of the volatile material and char, and further reduction to produce a fuel gas rich in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This combustible gas has a lower calorific value than natural gas but can still be used as fuel for boilers, for engines, and potentially for combustion turbines after cleaning the gas stream of tars and particulates. 


Pyrolysis is the term given to the thermal degradation of wood in the absence of oxygen. It enables wastes to be converted to a combination of solid char, gas and a liquid bio-oil. Pyrolysis technologies are generally categorized as “fast” or “slow” according to the time taken for processing the feed into pyrolysis products. Using fast pyrolysis, bio-oil yield can be as high as 80 percent of the product on a dry fuel basis. Bio-oil can act as a liquid fuel or as a feedstock for chemical production. 

Green Building Sector in the Middle East: Sustainability Perspectives

Green buildings are no longer a marginal concept but are becoming the standard for sustainable building construction and modernization in the Middle East. Forward thinking organizations can realize the benefits of being environmentally aware of the impact of each and every action undertaken in the present world of development. It is no longer about the financial bottom line and whether we are eco-friendly, it is a fundamental component of sustainability. Institutes and organizations in the Middle East can embrace green building initiatives as a mandate, while educational institutes can embrace it as a good citizen initiative developing the minds of young people into being caring and concerned citizens of the planet.


Certification of Green Buildings

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), developed in the USA,  offer directives for both new construction and renovation of already existing buildings. In the USA, LEED certification is required for buildings over a specified floor area, namely 5,000 square feet. There are other green building initiatives originating in the UK and Europe, and in the GCC region as well. The basic premises are similar regardless which system one chooses for building certification.

This is not a single sustainable system but are a range of standards that can be incorporated into new construction or existing buildings. The basic premise is to provide standards for the building owner and the building operators to reference and adhere to in order to operate and manage a sustainable building environment.

With the LEED rating system, there are four levels of certification starting at Certified and progressing to Silver, Gold and Platinum ranking. The ranking is awarded based on number of credits achieved when the overall building performance is benchmarked against the standards. The main areas where the building is benchmarked is in terms of energy efficiency, water conservation and indoor air quality.

The challenge is in utilizing the system with existing buildings as the greater majority of buildings already exist compared with the number of proposed new construction sites. Energy consumption is the greatest sector that can be addressed in terms of efficiency. This is critical, especially with the urgency to mitigate climate change and lower greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), conserve water and manage waste product better.

Identifying the Best Sustainability Strategy

The first step is to identify the best sustainability strategy for an organization based on the present level of sustainability, possible options for achieving greater sustainability, as well as the estimated costs and likely benefits. The main areas of sustainability concerns include energy efficiency, water conservation, indoor air quality, environmental quality, construction materials and site sustainability. To undertake sustainable measures for all areas at once is not a good practice because of the cost involved.


Net Zero Energy Buildings rely on exceptional energy conservation and on-site renewable generation to meet energy requirements..

Therefore, the preferred area for implementing sustainable best practice measures often first address the energy efficiency areas as these measures can have significant cost savings. The evaluation focuses on electrical and mechanical systems, as well as the potential for renewable energy usage. The identification of possible changes to improve the energy efficiency should reduce energy consumption rates by modifying operational procedures. This may be achieved by installing energy efficient light sources, light sensors, and even retro-commissioning air conditioners and/or heat systems.


Water consumption is of growing concern. Therefore, water usage and water recovery and reuse after treatment are all viable considerations. The best practices include managing the water flow at the faucet and the flush system in toilets. These are the two main consumer areas. Other measures depending on location could include harvesting of rainwater and method of irrigation.

Indoor Air Quality

Indoor quality covers several areas such as air quality, thermal comfort and lighting quality. Lighting quality can be improved significantly by using natural light source as mush as possible. Adequate clean, fresh air is critical for the overall well being of the building occupants. This may require the replacement of materials in the building that give of toxic fumes. It could also require changing processes conducted indoors.

Another critical area is to eliminate emission of ozone depleting gases from HVAC systems, fire suppressant materials and refrigerant gases. Many of the latter are already well addressed in developed regions of the globe.  But this is not the case in the less developed regions of the globe.

Waste Minimization

Waste reduction in materials and construction is achieved through waste management processes. This is best achieved through waste management and recycling initiatives. Analysis of cleaning products is another means of improving the overall air quality within buildings. Also, the use of natural building materials is preferable to man-made products.

Sustainable Indoors and Outdoors

The final area to consider is making the overall area – both indoors and outdoors –  more sustainable. This can be reflected in exterior lighting system, landscape of the grounds.  e.g. using xeriscape techniques in desert regions, selecting native plant species better suited to the outdoor conditions, and so on. Transportation options that are more favourable for “green” focus and sustainability are the ideal where employees are encouraged to carpool, as just one example. One measure that has become very popular in Bahrain is capturing solar energy from car parking shade roofing.

The Way Forward

By conducting energy, water and air quality audits, proposed sustainable measures can then be incorporated into large scale organizational planning strategies that make the organization operational procedures “green” and sustainable. These “green” initiatives can be implemented in operational procedures, maintenance and upgrade, as well as in new construction.

Initial implementation typically focuses on low-cost initiatives that have a short-term payback by reducing energy and other resource consumption rates. Over time, sustainable initiatives will highlight the short-term and long-term benefits in terms of environmental, economic and social factors. Ultimately buildings can ensure maximum operational efficiency while achieving a sustainable built environment.

Masdar’s Partnership with GDF Suez for Morocco CSP Project

Masdar and GDF Suez are working in a consortium as one of the pre-qualified bidders for the 200MW Noor II and 100MW Noor III CSP projects in Morocco. The winning bidders are expected to be announced in September this year and in a recent interview with CSP Today, Yago Mancebo, Investment Manager at Masdar, spoke about Masdar’s first experience in the bidding process for a CSP project and their reasons for partnering with GDF Suez.

Masdar has a strong portfolio of CSP projects behind them (Gemasolar and Shams 1), whilst their partner GDF Suez are one of the biggest independent power producers in the world with a vast experience of bidding for utility scale power projects. In the interview, Mancebo highlights this complementing balance of experience as the main reason for choosing to partner with GDF Suez in Morocco.

Mancebo outlined their challenges and successes in finding the right partners for CSP projects. Mancebo said that the main challenge with forming a good partnership in CSP is simply that there are relatively few players in the industry. He went on to say that GDF starting to get into the CSP industry is a positive thing ‘because we now have at least one more company interested in this technology’.

Mancebo also spoke about the reasons behind why Masdar did not partner with some of the developers they have worked with in the past, such as SENER and ACWA Power, stating that the main reason is that ACWA Power has their own strategy for Morocco solar energy market. Mancebo said that Masdar would ‘prefer to be the leading partner in every sense’ and ‘want to be an active investor’ in the CSP projects they are involved with in the future. He went on to say that this is reason the partnership with GDF Suez works well, as ‘the consortium’s decision-making process is like a joint venture – 50-50’.

مقدمة عن زراعه الاسطح الخضراء

green-roof-arabicتعتبر زراعه الاسطح من التكنولوجيا التي توفر مجموعة كبيرة من الفوائد الملموسه وغير الملموسه للمجتمعات المهتمة بتحسين وتعزيز بيئة جيدة.للأسقف الخضراء فوائد عديدة فهي تعمل على تنظيم حرارة المبنى ,فتقوم بتدفئته خلال الشتاء و تبريده خلال الصيف كما تساهم فى تقليل مياه الامطار المتسربة من الاسطح، ذلك لأنها تعمل كإسفنجة ماصة للمياه و في الوقت نفسه تستفيد النباتات من هذه المياه.

 كما تقوم الأسقف الخضراء على تقليل التلوث حيث تعمل كفلتر لتنقية الهواء. ومن فوائد الأسقف الخضراء قيامها  بدور هام فى تقليل الضوضاء و التى تعتبر من مشاكل العصر الحديث خاصة فى المدن. كما يجب ان لا  ننسى أن للأسقف الخضراء فوائد اقتصادية عديدة فهى تزيد من عمر المباني حيث تعمل كعازل حراري بحجبها أشعة الشمس عن أسطح المبانى كما تقلل من تكاليف تكييف الهواء خلال الصيف و التدفئة خلال الشتاء.

ما هي الاسطح الخضراء

النظم المستخدمة لزراعة أسطح المباني يجب ان تكون نظاماً خفيف الوزن لا يسبب حمولة زائدة علي المبني، كذلك يجب ان لا يحدث تسريب للمياه من النظام لسطح المبنى حتى يتم الحفاظ على المبنى بصورة جيدة ولفترة طويلة. و قد وجد أن الزراعة بدون تربة بأنظمتها المختلفة وأشكالها المتنوعة هي الاسلوب الامثل لزراعة السطح.

الاسطح الخضراء ممكن ان تتكون من اشجار, نباتات او شجيرات. وعمق وكثافه الطبقة المنبته للزراعه تنقسم الي نوعين مختلفين.

فالاسطح الخضراء ممكن ان تكون مكثفة او قليله الكثافة علي نطاق واسع. فالاسقف المكثفة تكون اكثر سمكا (اكثر من 15 سم عمق), وهي سماكة تسمح لنمو مجموعه متنوعه من النباتات والاشجار والشجيرات. ولكنها ثقيله علي السطح ومكلفه اكثر, وتتطلب المزيد من الصيانة والري.

والنوع الاخر يغطي طبقة خفيفة من الغطاء النباتي وذات سماكة اقل من 15 سم. وهي مخصصه للشجيرات والاعشاب التي لا تتطلب عمق كبير داخل التربة للنمو.

يستخدم نظام ترابيزات المراقد لانتاج المحاصيل التي لا تحتاج إلى حيز كبير لنمو جذور النباتات  مثل  المحاصيل  الورقية  كالجرجير،  الفجل،  البقدونس،  الكسبرة  والشبت.  كذلك يمكن باستخدام هذا النظام زراعة العديد من النباتات الطبية والعطرية والتي تستخدم في البيوت بكثرة كالنعناع، الزعتر، الريحان, وغيرهم.

والاسطح الخضراء علي مساحات واسعه وكثافه بسيطة يتم صيانتها مرتين سنويا عندما تحتاج التربه للترطيب والتسميد, فلها ميزة ان استدامتها ذاتية .

بيئة الزراعة المستخدمة

يجب ان تتوافر في بيئة الزراعة المستخدمة فوق الاسطح عدة مواصفات يمكن ان تلخص بما يلي :

1.      ان توفر البيئة الرطوبة اللازمة لنمو الجذور.

2.      ان توفر البيئة التهوية اللازمة لنمو الجذور.

3.      ان لا  تحتوي البيئة علي مواد ضارة او سامة.

4.      ان تكون البيئة خالية من المسببات المرضية.

5.      ان تكون البيئة خالية من الاملاح .

6.      ان تكون البيئة خالية من بذور الحشائش.

7.      أن تكون البيئة خفيفة الوزن.

8.      أن تتميز البيئة بسهوله تنظيفها و تعقيمها.

9.      سهوله توفر البيئة, مع سهوله عمليات النقل.

10.  ان تكون تكلفه البيئة معتدلة.

ويوجد العديد من المواد التي يمكن استخدامها كبيئة للزراعه فوق الاسطح. وتنقسم الي قسمين رئيسين هما: بيئات عضوية مثل بيئة سرس الارز. او البيئات غير العضوية مثل بيئة البرليت. ويمكن ان تسنخدم البيئات السابقة بصورة منفردة او تخلط معا للوصول الي افضل توليفه تلائم النباتات المزروعه.

اما بالنسبة للاشكال المختلفة لنظم مزارع البيئات فوق الاسطح, فهناك نظام الترابيزات المراقد وتستخدم للنباتات التي لا تحتاج الي حيز كبير لنمو الجذور. نظام ترابيزات الاصص وتسنخدم للنباتات التي تحتاج الي  حيز كبير نسبيا حتي تنمو الجذور مثل الطماطم. وهناك نظام لانتاج بعض اشجار الفاكهة فوق الاسطح مثل البراميل سعه 60 لتر لانتاج بعض الاشجار مثل الليمون.

بسبب الحمل المنشأ من استخدام الاسطح الخضراء الكثيفه فانها تستخدم بشكل اكبر في المباني التجاريه. حيث ان المباني التجارية اكثر تحمل لكونها اقوي من الناحية الخرسانيه, فانها تستطيع تحميل الاوزان الزائدة عنها في المباني السكنية.

بمجرد تجهيز التربة ووضع النباتات المطلوبة وترطيب تربتها, فان السطح المزروع ممكن ان يزن 150 بوند/القدم المربع. ويراعي لخلق جو اخضر وطبيعي للزائريين. ان ييكون هناك اماكن جلوس, مناضد, كراسي وممرات. الامر الذي يخلق بيئة من الطبيعه والهدوء.

والاسطح الكثيفة ذات الاشجار الاكبر حجما تساعد اكثر من النباتات علي الهدوء والاستراخاء, وخلق بيئة قريبة من المتنزهات والحدائق.

وعلي جانب اخر فان الاسطح الاكثر انتشارا والاقل كثافة تكون افضل للمباني السكنية و المدارس. فهي سهله التركيب والصيانة وممكن ان تضاف الي المبني بعد بدء الاسكان بدون تخوف من الاحمال الزائدة. ايا كان نوع النباتات او الشجيرات المستخدمة فانه يمكن اضافة وزن 10-35 بوند/القدم المربع, لاجمالي أحمال السطح. الحشائش والنباتات غير المستهلكة لكثير من الماء من الانواع التي تجد استحسان للزراعة فوق السطح وذلك نظرا لاستخدامها القليل للماء وجذورها القصيرة.

 ومن أهم فوائد الاسطح الخضراء انها صالحة للمباني القديمة والحديثة.

 والانظمة المستخدمة للزراعه يمكن ان تكون وحدات بطبقة صرف وطبقة فلترة من القماش وطبقة انبات بنوع معين, وشبكة ري وصرف متشابكة. والنباتات المستخدمة والتي تكون مسبقة التجهيز خارجيا, البوتقات المستخدمة التي تكون منفصله عن النظام او مركبة جزء منه. وهذا النظام يسمح بتكوين النظام بشكل منفصل.


تختلق التقارير  التي توضح تكلفة النظام المتسع والاقل كثافه للتربه المستخدمة ليكن في المتوسط لزراعه النظام المتسع ما بين 8-20 دولار/ للقدم المربع. وبالنسبة للنظام الكثيف مابين 15-50 دولار/القدم المربع. وبالمقارنة للاسطح التقليدية المزروعه والتي تكون في المتوسط 16 دولار/القدم المربع وقد يعلو عن ذلك في التكلفة. ولكن بالرغم من ذلك فان ما توفره الاسطح الخضراء من فوائد بيئية وجمالية وصحية هي اكثر بكثير من التكلفه المتوقعه للتنفيذ.

فوائد الاسقف الخضراء

الاسطح الخضراء لديها القدرة علي خفض متطلبات الطاقة بطريقيتين:

امتصاص الحرارة واعتبارها عازل حراري للمبني. فاضافه طبقه من التربة والنباتات الي السطح يزيد طبقة العزل الحراري علي السطح. فالاسطح هي اكثر الامكان التي تفقد الحرارة الداخلية في الشتاء وتزيد سخونة المبني في الصيف. الاسطح الخضراء يمكن ان تقلل من كمية الطاقة اللازمة لتلطيف الحرارة داخل المبني وبالتالي الحد من متطلبات الطاقة والتي لها تاثير ايجابي علي نوعية الهواء وتخفيض نسبة تلوثه.

كما ان الاسطح الخضراء ممكن ان تقلل من انبعاثات غازات الاحتباس الحراري وثلوث الهواء المرتبطة بزيادة نسبة ثاني اكسيد الكربون في الجو. وتعتبر محطات الطاقة والمعروف انها مسببة لانبعاثات ثاني اكسيد الكربون تكون الاسطح الخضراء حلا ايجابيا علي تقليل هذه الانبعاثات عن طريق تحويله الي اكسجين مما يساعد علي تحسين نوعية الهواء في البيئة المحيطة.

ترجمه: هبة احمد مسلم- دكتور الهندسة البيئية. باحث في الشئون البيئية. معهد الدراسات والبحوث البيئيةجامعه عين شمس.

مدرس بالاكاديمية العربية للعلوم والتكنولوجيا والنقل البحري-  مصر.

التحكم في البيئة والطاقه داخل المباني.

هندسة الميكانيكة- وكيل محرك دويتس الالماني بمصر. 

للتواصل عبر

Wildlife Protection in Bahrain

giraffe-bahrainWildlife maintain ecological balance of nature, food chain and nature cycles and plays an important role in the environment and for human progress through availability of large gene pool for the scientists to carry research and breeding programs in agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery. The World Conservation Union estimates that there are more than 16,000 wildlife species that are currently threatened with extinction. In the last 500 years, 820 species have become extinct as a result of human activity. 

Bahrain has very limited wildlife population, and its conservation is of great importance. Al Areen Wildlife Park located in Sakhir is a nature reserve and zoo. The park is one of the five protected areas in the Kingdom. The reserve is house to 100,000 planted flora and more than 90 species of birds and 50 species of animals. The inmates include extinct species including the wild Arabian Oryx, Persian Gazelle, Chapman’s Zebra, the rare Addax and many other exotic birds. 

Unfortunately, many people try intimidating animals or birds for the sake of pleasure and time passing often with bad intentions and having no respect for wildlife. Usually children do mischievous activities of throwing stones and litter on animals to get their attention or throwing eatables thinking that these poor creatures will eat. It is a very cruel example of unfriendly action towards beautiful creatures that provide us with recreation and happiness.

We need to realize that we are bound with all other forms of life in one gigantic ecosystem and have to change/ improve our attitude and way of thinking about other creatures on earth. We need to understand that animals and birds are also creatures like us and have full right to live in harmony with the human beings. We need to be careful in our acts of dealing with them and taking care of their wellbeing.

Al-Areen Wildlife Park in the only protected area on land in Bahrain, and is spread over 400 hectares

Al-Areen Wildlife Park in the only protected area on land in Bahrain, and is spread over 400 hectares

We being the dominant creatures on this planet need to create more awareness about animals and birds and school children are to be trained in how we deal with them and care about their welfare. At park and other recreation areas, we need to stop other people harming the birds who do it just as a random sport or activity.

It is suggested that NGOs need to engage volunteers to support and assist the staff at wildlife parks and to create awareness amongst the people how and what contribution animals and birds are providing and how we need to take care of them.

Wildlife conservation is imperative if we are to become stewards of the earth, and to create a truly sustainable future for ourselves and for the generations to come.