Qatar’s Fight Against Climate Change

Qatar's environmental records have always been in news, of course for the negative ones, but it has always strived to work towards reduction of GHGs emissions. Qatar is already doing plenty to help poor countries with financing and it seems unfair to focus on per capita emissions for a country with estimated population of 2.27 million making it the 143th most populous country on earth. (For climate talks, that is heresy). This may sound harsh, especially since Qatar's contribution to global warming is tiny compared with the United States, China or India.

In recent years, Qatar is making itself a benchmark for all future sustainable and renewable initiatives in the Middle East. Qatar is committed to creating a cleaner and more energy efficient environment which is expected to make significant contributions in addressing climate change challenges and moving towards a more sustainable future. However, these positive moves will not be enough to cover up the fact that Qatar, much as the other oil-producing countries in the Gulf, has still not made any commitment as part of the UN climate talks.

Qatar’s Revamping Climate Plans

In line with Qatar National Vision 2030, Qatar aims to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Sustainable development has been identified as one of the top priorities in Qatar’s National Development Strategy. Environmental Development is one of the four main pillars of the Qatar National Vision 2030, which aims to manage rapid domestic expansion to ensure harmony between economic growth, social development, and environmental protection.

According to recent reports, Qatar is getting close to opening its long-delayed 200-megawatt solar tender. Qatar currently has a stated goal of installing 10 gigawatts (GW) of solar power capacity by 2030; the 200 MW solar tender represents just a portion of the installations expected over the coming years, but is still a noteworthy quantity. Qatar, as part of its environmental commitment and sustainable development, is turning to renewable sources of energy such as solar power, with initiatives already underway.

Qatar Foundation (QF) plays an instrumental role in Qatar’s sustainability efforts as it helps transform the country into a knowledge-based economy. It also endeavors to realize this vision by making sustainability an integral part of the day-to-day lives of local residents. By doing so, QF is working towards achieving its own strategic mission of unlocking human potential and promoting creativity and innovation.

Qatar Foundation (QF), in partnership with the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), is setting up a pioneering Climate Change Research Institute and a Global Climate Change Forum as part of MoU signed on sidelines of COP 18 UNFCC Doha conference in 2012. The Institute, the first of its kind in the region, will seek to fill critical gaps in research on mitigation, adaptation and climate resiliency for key regions such as tropics, sub-tropics and dry lands. However, it is making a very slow pace due to various issues.

Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development is producing up to 85 percent of Qatar's total solar energy as it announced the launch of one of the Gulf region's first Energy Monitoring Centre (EMC) to manage its smart grid and monitor solar power generation across all sites within Education City. The EMC is part of the recently completed Solar Smart-Grid Project that added a total of 1.68MW of new solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at various facilities. The PV systems at QF now generate 5,180 MWh of clean energy annually, resulting in savings of around 2,590 tons of CO2 emissions every year.

The Qatar Green Building Council, a QF member was established in 2009 to promote sustainable growth and development in Qatar through cost efficient and environment-friendly building practices. There has been rapid progress in green building sector in Qatar with the emergence of many world-class sustainable constructions in recent years. With the fifth-highest number of LEED-registered and certified buildings outside the U.S., Qatar has valuable experience and inputs to offer on the system’s local relevancy and application.

Qatar National Convention Center (QNCC) which hosted Doha UNFCCC climate conference COP 18/CMP8 was the first LEED certified project in Qatar and remains its largest rooftop solar system installed to date. Subsequently, Qatar Foundation continues to have the largest pipeline of all PV installations in the country, in addition to its pipeline of LEED-certified green buildings. With more than five megawatts of solar energy installations planned, Qatar Foundation's clean efforts are one of the largest in the Gulf region.

QF is equally dedicated to sustainable infrastructural development. For instance, the student-housing complex at Education City is currently one of the only platinum LEED-certified student housing complexes in the world. Having earned 12 Platinum LEED certifications in the category of ‘New Construction’ from the US Green Building Council, it is also the largest collection of platinum LEED- certified buildings in one area in the world.

Qatar Solar Energy (QSE) has officially opened one of the largest vertically integrated PV module production facilities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The 300 MW facility, located in the Doha industrial zone of Qatar, is the first significant development of the Qatar National Vision 2030, which aims to reduce the country's reliance on fossil fuels in favor of more renewable energy sources. Qatar's fledgling forays into the solar PV sector have gathered pace last year, when state-backed Qatar Solar Technologies (QSTec) acquired a 29% stake in SolarWorld in a move that raised eyebrows throughout the industry.

The Head of Qatar’s state-run electricity and water company (Kahramaa) has already announced ambitious plans to install solar panels atop the roofs of many of the country’s 85 reservoirs. With these latest plans are for creative solution to Qatar’s lack of viable land space (the country measures just 11,571km²), it is a must in a country with very little available land for large-scale solar plants. Qatar will adopt a scattered model, installing several small- to medium-sized PV installations.

Qatar's National Food Security Programme (QNFSP) has been a driving force behind the nation’s thirst for renewable energy, creating an action plan designed to better utilize Qatar’s abundant solar radiation. Meanwhile, Qatar Solar Tech 70% owned by the Qatar Foundation (QF) has announced that it is scaling up its local manufacturing capabilities, and will build a 297 acre solar farm in the country’s Ras Laffan Industrial City.

As the host country for 2022 FIFA World Cup, Qatar has pledged solar-powered stadiums and the country is also working on a range of other solar projects gearing up to this Football Extravaganza.

Conclusions

Climate change and increase in temperatures is making Qatar even more vulnerable to the lack of water and food insecurity. Every single drop of water that is used in Qatar needs to be desalinated. Every single gram of food that is eaten needs to be either imported or grown with desalinated water. The plunging price of oil, coupled with advances in clean energy and resource conservation, offers Qatar a real chance to rationalize energy policy. Qatar can get rid of billions of dollars of distorting energy subsidies whilst shifting taxes towards carbon use. It is heartening to see that Qatar has recognized the importance of renewable energy and sustainability and its fight for reducing its ecological footprint. A cheaper, greener, sustainable and more reliable energy future for Qatar could be within reach.

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Waste-to-Energy Outlook for Jordan

A “waste crisis” is looming in Jordan with more than 2 million tons of municipal waste and 18,000 tons of industrial wastes being generated each year at an annual growth rate of 3 percent. Alarmingly, less than 5 per cent of solid waste is currently recycled in Jordan. These statistics call for a national master plan in order to reduce, manage and control waste management in the country. The main points to be considered are decentralized waste management, recycling strategy and use of modern waste management technologies. Currently there is no specific legal framework or national strategy for solid waste management in Jordan which is seriously hampering efforts to resolve waste management situation.

Waste can be converted into energy by conventional technologies (such as incineration, mass-burn, anaerobic digestion and landfill gas capture). Municipal solid waste can also be efficiently converted into energy and fuels by advanced thermal technologies, such as gasification and pyrolysis. Landfill gas capture projects represent an attractive opportunity for Jordan as huge landfills/dumpsites are present in all cities and towns.

A 1 MW pilot demonstration project using municipal solid waste (MSW) through landfill and biogas technology systems was constructed and commissioned in 2001.  The project was expanded in 2008 to about 4 MW.  Jordan plans to introduce about 40-50 MW waste energy power projects by 2020. However, biomass energy projects offer a low potential in Jordan because of the severe constraints on vegetation growth imposed by the arid climate. It has been estimated that animal and solid wastes in Jordan represent an energy potential of about 105 toe annually, but municipal solid waste represents a major fraction with a gross annual production rate of more than 2 million tons.

More than 80% of actual total manure generation is concentrated in 4 northern Governorates Al Zarqa, Amman, Al-Mafraq and Irbid. More than 80% of cattle manure is being produced in three northern Governorates Al-Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid. More than 80% of poultry manure production is located in 5 northern Governorates Amman, Irbid, Al-Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Al-Karak. An exception is sheep manure. More than 90% of sheep manure is available in three Governorates Aqaba (40%), Al-Mafraq (25%) and Al-Zarqa (25%).

Conclusion

In Jordan, waste-to-energy can be applied at small-scale for heating/cooking purposes, or it can be used at a large-scale for power generation and industrial heating. Waste-to-energy can thus be adapted rural as well as or urban environments in the country, and utilized in domestic, commercial or industrial applications.

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CDM Projects in MENA Region

 

The MENA region is an attractive CDM destination as it is rich in renewable energy resources and has a robust oil and gas industry. Surprisingly, countries in MENA host very few and declining number of CDM projects with only 23 CDM projects registered till date. The region accounts for only 1.5 percent of global CDM projects and only two percent of emission reduction credits. The two main challenges facing many of these projects are: weak capacity in most MENA countries for identifying, developing and implementing carbon finance projects and securing underlying finance. 

The registered CDM projects in MENA countries are primarily located in UAE, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Qatar, Syria and Tunisia. Other countries in the region, like Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Oman, are also exploring opportunities for implementing projects that could be registered under the Kyoto Protocol.

Potential CDM projects that can be implemented in the region may come from varied areas like sustainable energy, energy efficiency, waste management, landfill gas capture, industrial processes, biogas technology and carbon flaring. For example, the energy efficiency projects in the oil and gas industry, can save millions of dollars and reduce tons of CO2 emissions. In addition, renewable energy, particularly solar and wind, holds great potential for the region, similar to biomass in Asia.

Let us take a look at some of the recent registered CDM projects from the MENA region.

Al-Shaheen Project (Qatar)

The Al-Shaheen project is the first of its kind in the region and third CDM project in the petroleum industry worldwide. The Al-Shaheen oilfield has flared the associated gas since the oilfield began operations in 1994. Prior to the project activity, the facilities used 125 tons per day (tpd) of associated gas for power and heat generation, and the remaining 4,100 tpd was flared. Under the current project, total gas production after the completion of the project activity is 5,000 tpd with 2,800-3,400 tpd to be exported to Qatar Petroleum (QP); 680 tpd for on-site consumption, and only 900 tpd still to be flared. The project activity will reduce GHG emissions by approximately 2.5 million tCO2 per year and approximately 17 million tCO2 during the initial seven-year crediting period.

GASCO Project (Abu Dhabi)

Located at the Asab and Bab gas processing plants in Abu Dhabi, the energy efficiency project is the fifth CDM project in the UAE to be registered under the Kyoto Protocol. The ADNOC's GASCO CDM project helps to reduce CO2 emissions through installation of a device in the flare line to considerably reduce the consumption of fuel gas, thereby ensuring lower greenhouse gas emissions. The project contributes to Abu Dhabi's and ADNOC's goals for sustainable development while improving air quality in the region. This retrofit project is expected to generate approximately 7,770 CERs per year.

Kafr El Dawar Project (Egypt)

Located at the Egypt for Spinning, Weaving and Dying Company in Kafr El Dawar near Alexandria, the fuel switching project is the latest CDM project from MENA to be registered under the Kyoto Protocol. The Kafr El Dawar CDM project helps reduce COemissions through switching from the higher carbon intensive fuel such as Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) to natural gas, a lower carbon intensive fossil fuel, contributing to Egypt’s goals in sustainable development. It has also significantly mitigated atmospheric emissions of pollutants while improving air quality in the region. The replacement of HFO with natural gas is expected to generate approximately 45,000 Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) per year.

 

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#InspireMENA Story 1: Humanizing Architecture – Through the Eyes of Abeer Seikaly

Through the jasmine-scented roads of L’weibdeh (Jordan) I navigated my way to Abeer Seikaly’s studio, an old house that resembles Jordan's genuine and inspiring identity. Abeer Seikaly is a young Jordanian architect who has been featured on several global and local media platforms because of her innovation "Weaving a Home" that was shortlisted for the 2012 Lexus Design Award.

Influence of Education and Local Knowledge

Top architecture schools in the Arab world are heavily influenced by international trends in built environment and sustainability, and unfortunately Arabic reference material is largely ignored in teaching. The emerging thinking around built environment and its relationship with people and nature rely largely on digital and virtual practice leaving students with minimal interaction with communities and building materials. Moreover, the growing disconnect between research and market requirements in most developing countries magnifies the gap between engineering and sustainable development.  Acknowledging the uniqueness of traditional Arab architecture and its historical importance in shaping sustainable building concepts raises concern on the diminishing role of local knowledge in responding to contemporary sustainability challenges.

For Abeer, having the chance to study abroad provided her with new insights not only about architecture but more importantly about her own potential and abilities within a larger context. What her culture-rich home environment gave her, on the other hand, was respect and appreciation for art, creativity and surroundings. With time, exposure and experimentation, Abeer defined her own architecture. Emphasizing that the pure definition of technology is craft, weaving, and making, her definition of innovative architecture combines old and new, traditional and contemporary. It is also thinking about architecture as a social technology.

Re-defining Success

When people are focused on the product, they usually tend to neglect the joy and benefit of the process itself. Focusing on the process boosts self-confidence and self-awareness and yet requires diligence and mindfulness while enjoying experimentation. It enables us to engage more deeply with the present, and thus, allow us to learn faster and experience life to the fullest.

According to Abeer Seikaly, architecture is not about the building itself but more about getting into it and experiencing its metaphysical nature with time. “Ordinary architects nowadays are inclined to use computer software to design buildings while sitting in closed offices. This is only dragging them away from people and from nature. As a real architect, you need to be out there to feel, interact and test your designs”, says Seikaly. “Creating is about the process and not about the outcome.”

Thinking through Making: The Tent

As a firm believer in the process, Abeer Seikaly has been working on her creative structural fabric for years. When the time was right, she used this creative work to bridge a gap in human needs. Participating in the Lexus Design Award was part of engaging her fabric with people and nature.  Disaster shelters have been made from a wide range of materials, but Abeer turned to solar-absorbing fabric as her material of choice in creating woven shelters that are powered by the sun and inspired by nomadic culture. The use of structural fabric references ancient traditions of joining linear fibers to make complex 3-D shapes.

Tackling an important issue like shelter for a humanitarian purpose can't be more relevant to both innovative architecture and sustainable development. With Jordan being host to more than 1.4 million Syrian refugees, this is about humanizing architecture and meeting basic human needs.  Abeer has explained everything about her fabric and its use in disaster relief on her blog.

Study model showing movement of the system and its collapsibility

She passionately mentions her ultimate inspiration: thinking through making. “Experimenting, looking at material's behavior, testing, and slowly you are there”, says Seikaly. “It is about thriving and not about surviving. Revelation results from years of hard work and continuous perseverance throughout the process”, she adds.

Recipe to Innovate

There is no recipe for innovation, Abeer Seikaly explains, but Jordanian engineers and architects need to ask themselves the following: What are you about? What is local/sustainable? What is Jordan about?

When asked about role of engineering firms, Seikaly stressed the fact that most corporations nowadays do not provide an enabling environment for youth to learn and grow. Emphasizing the importance of innovation, she says “With no personal attention and coaching, engineers are disconnecting from themselves and from community. Despite all the difficulties we face in our country, innovation goes back to personal drive and motivation: if you need it, you will make it”.

“Define your role as an Architect in a developing country, I have discovered mine and became an aware human being. To serve society and improve well-being is who I am”, concludes Abeer.

Architecture and Sustainable Development

The straightforward link between architecture and sustainable development goals is Global Goal No. 11 i.e. Sustainable Cities and Communities; nevertheless, a deeper look at how architecture influences and gets influenced by other elements brings about a link with almost each of the other Global Goals. The unique relationship between built environment, people and nature makes it an opportunity to demonstrate real sustainable development, as highlighted by Abeer Seikaly’s innovation. Around 60% of the world's population will be living in cities in 2030 which dictates a new and integrated way of thinking about urban design and architecture.

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Unleashing Solar Power in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, with domestic consumption reaching 4 million barrels per day in 2012 out of daily production of 10 million barrels. Saudi Arabia’s primary energy consumption per capita is four times higher than the world average. Strong industrial growth, subsidized oil prices, increasing energy demand for electricity and transportation is leading to a growing clamor for oil in the country. The total energy consumption in the Kingdom is rapidly rising at an average rate of about 6 percent per annum.

Solar Energy Prospects 

To meet the rising local energy demand, Saudi Arabia plans to increase generating capacity to 120 GW by 2020. Residential sector holds the biggest share of total energy consumption, accounting for as much as 80 percent of the electricity usage. Despite being the leading oil producer as well as consumer, Saudi Arabia is showing deep interest in the development of large projects for tapping its rich renewable energy potential, especially solar power. The country plans to invest more than $100 billion in clean energy projects to meet its objective of getting one-third of electricity requirements from alternative energy resources.

There is a growing Interest in utilization of solar energy in Saudi Arabia as the country is blessed with abundant solar flux throughout the year. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest solar irradiation in the world, estimated at approximately 2,200 thermal kWh of solar radiation per square meter. The country is strategically located near the Sun Belt, not to mention wide availability of empty stretches of desert that may accommodate solar power generating infrastructure. Moreover, vast deposits of sand can be used in the manufacture of silicon PV cells which makes Saudi Arabia an attractive location for both CSP and PV power generation. 

Promising Developments

The first initiative from the government was the establishment of King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (KA-CARE) which is the official agency in-charge of promoting clean energy in the Kingdom. The kingdom is planning to add an additional 41 GW of solar power by 2032, with 16 GW to be generated by photovoltaics and 25 GW by solar thermal power plants. One of the major achievements was the establishment of 3.5MW PV project at the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center. 

Concentrated solar power is another interesting option for Saudi Arabia due to its strong dependence on desalination plants to meet its water requirement. Waste heat of a CSP power plant can be used to power seawater desalination projects. Recently Saudi Electric Company has selected CSP to produce electricity with 550MW Duba 1 project, an integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant located 50km north of Duba near Tuba. The plant is designed to integrate a parabolic trough unit of around 20 to 30MW. 

Keeping in view its regional dominance, Saudi Arabia can play a vital role in the popularization of solar energy in the MENA region. Solar energy program may not only augment oil-wealth of the Kingdom, but also transform Saudi Arabia into a net solar power exporter in the near future. 

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Climate Change Impacts in the Levant

Many countries in the Levant — such as Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria — are afflicted by water scarcity, weak institutional and governmental resource management, high food import dependency and fragile economies –  all coupled with increasing populations and demand. According to the recent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the Arab World will be witnessing hotter and drier conditions with extensive droughts causing severe water shortages that will have dire impacts on agriculture and livelihood. Farmers in the Arab world for centuries have been addressing adaptation and resilience issues through farming, water management and environmental degradation. Global climate change is foreseen to increase the severity of climatic conditions and increase the vulnerability of resource dependent countries and communities.

Water Scarcity

Water scarcity is one of the issues expected to increase with climate change. This will adversely affect livelihoods and sectors like agriculture, which is the largest water user in the country. The Levant region is projected to be one of the most severely impacted region in the world as per most general circulation models (GCMs) due to the expectation of severe water scarcity which will in turn impact its socio-economic development (Assaf, 2009). The Levant states’ engagement in the UNFCCC process is vital since major regional studies conducted by the Arab Development and Environment Forum forecasts alarming impacts part of which suggests that increasingly scarce water resources will be further reduced between 15-50% in all four countries.

Moreover, due to water loss and land degradation agricultural self-sufficiency is dismal, especially when considering inefficient irrigation techniques that are more suitable to other areas instead of the Levant region, e.g. severe land degradation in the Euphrates Valley of Syria (Nasr, 2009). This in turn will result and influence the whole issue of food security leading to widespread poverty in the region. The situation may be exacerbated due to current political instability and conflict in the area — noting that Syria is heavily dependent on water resources outside its borders, while Jordon already consumes more than 100% of their available water (Nasr, 2009; Tolba and Saab, 2009). Jordon, ranked as the fourth most water insecure country in the world, has already identified four critical sectors – water, energy, agriculture and food security – in addition to waste reduction and management.

Agriculture

Increase in temperatures and decrease in rainfall also characterizes the main climatic changes facing Levant countries such as Lebanon. Agricultural sector in Levant is expected to experience minimal impact of climate change. However, a reduced amount of agricultural land will be available due to desertification and urban expansion. This means that agriculture will be affected and the price of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products will rise as well, bringing about negative impacts on marginalized communities.

Increase in Sea Level

An additional factor is the expected rise in sea level that could further contaminate the nearby aquifers such as the coastal aquifer of Gaza that should provide water to impoverished Palestinians. The annual decrease in precipitation has led to less freshwater availability for surface or ground water. It is being projected that a one meter rise in 50 years will cause salt intrusions in Iraq well into the north beyond Basra and intrude into water aquifers in Lebanon, as far as downtown Beirut and Dbayyeh areas (Nasr, 2009).

Political Vulnerability

With stringent Israeli control on natural resources use and management, the Palestinian Authority lacks the capacity to enforce regulations and mechanisms to ensure the integ1ration of climate change impacts into development planning in the country. This ultimately increases the vulnerability of governmental and nongovernmental institutions and further intensifies the vulnerability and exposure of communities to the effects of climate change. Nevertheless, climate change adaptation planning is supported by governmental institutions like the Ministry of Environmental Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture and the Water Authority in addition to environmental NGOs and engaged stakeholders. Similar to Jordan, Palestine climate projections clearly state that water shortages will increase, increasing the water asymmetry already existing due to the unequal use of water between Israel and Palestinian areas.

Economic Considerations

In the Levant region, the water sector currently undergoes several environmental stresses resulting from different socio- economic activities and practices, including agriculture, energy, and transport. The potential impacts of climate change on the coastal zone include losses in coastal and marine economic activities such as tourism, agriculture, fisheries, transportation and other essential services. Coastal communities relying on ecosystem services, such as fishing for livelihoods will bear the impacts of increase in sea water temperature as the marine fish stock might decrease and marine biodiversity miay change or decline.

In countries such as Lebanon, the coastal zone has very high population density (estimated at around 594 inhabitants per km2) and is characterized by a concentration of Lebanon’s main economic activity. In fact, the largest Lebanese cities (Beirut, Saida, Tripoli and Tyre) are located along the coast, and contribute to more than 74% of Lebanon’s GDP through commercial and financial activities, large industrial zones, important agricultural lands as well as fishing and tourism.

In addition to organizational and technical constrains similarly faced by other Levant countries, Palestine is also experiencing political constrains due to the Israeli situation. The shared trans-boundary groundwater is unequally distributed  with Israel using more than 80% of Palestinian water resources.

Research Gap

Due to economic growth and increasing population, energy demand is expected to rise by at least 50 percent in some countries over the next 20 years. The provision of reliable energy supply at reasonable cost is thus a crucial element of economic reform and sustainable development. Transportation sector is of crucial importance for the regions further economic development. In general terms, lack of and access to data are the main barriers that proved to be the most hindering. The lack of statistics particularly affects the assessment of GHG emissions and economic development scenarios. In turn, governments have blamed the weak economic base for the inability to support research. The absence of scientific assessments and research in terms of assessing e.g. economic impacts of climate change, the ecological impacts of global warming and the degree of resilience of the different systems are hindering the prioritization of adaptation strategies in the decision-making process.

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إجعل رمضانك أخضر

في شهر رمضان نشهد إختلافاً كبيراً في العادات والأنشطة اليومية سواء من عادات الأكل أو الصلاة . وتأتي الدعوة لعدم الأكل والشرب من شروق الشمس إلى غروبها في هذا الشهر لتعزيز قدرات التحمل البدني والعقلي، وفهم الصعوبات التي يواجهها المحرومين ممن ليس لديهم ما يكفي من الموارد لتلبية حاجاتهم الأساسية. ويتجلى المعنى الحقيقي لشهر رمضان بتنقية أنفسنا مع الحرص على صحة الجسم، والروح، وعلاقاتنا الانسانية  بالإضافة إلى علاقتنا مع النظم البيئية التي تدعم وجودنا على هذه الارض.

شهر رمضان هو فرصة ذهبية للتفكير في إمكانية التحول نحو "نمط الحياة الخضراء" الذي يتمثل بأسلوب حياة صديقة للبيئة، تتجنب التلوث والإسراف، وتهدف إلى التوفير في استهلاكنا للموارد الطبيعية. نمط الحياة الخضراء يعني تحسين نوعية الحياة وتحقيق التنمية المستدامة.

دعونا نخلق الوعي حول استخدامنا للموارد الطبيعية خلال شهر رمضان، ونبدأ بالتفكير والتصرف بشكل إيجابي لحماية بيئتنا وتغيير عاداتنا التي تؤثر على النظام البيئي حولنا. دعونا نغتنم هذه الفرصة التي يوفرها رمضان ونعتمد نموذجا للسلوك الأخضر والمسؤول الذي يعالج القضايا البيئية الملحة.

من المعروف أن استهلاك اللحوم والخضار والفواكه بالإضافة إلى المشروبات والعصائر يشهد إزدياداً كبيراً في هذا الشهر. لذلك، دعونا نتأنى بقراراتنا الاستهلاكية ونتناول الطعام الصحي والعضوي بكميات مدروسة. دعونا نزرع الخضراوات والفواكه بالمساحات المتاحة لدينا، ونستخدم المواد الغذائية بحكمة. دعونا نبتعد عن عاداتنا الروتينية التي تلوث الهواء والتربة والمياه. هذا وعلينا أن ندرك أن أي سوء إدارة لمواردنا المتاحة سيكون له آثار لا رجعة فيها على التوازن البيئي وعلى أجيالنا المقبلة.

يقدم رمضان فرصة مثالية لإعادة شحن طاقتنا الروحانية كل عام. فهو أنسب وقت للتكفير عما فات والتفكر في خلق الله. حيث حمل البشر مسؤولية عمارة الأرض التي تتضمن الاستخدام  الأمثل للموارد والبيئة بحيث نضمن استدامتها.

ليكن هذا الشهر نقطة تحول في سبيل احترام مواردنا والبيئة من حولنا. وفيما يلي بعض الأفكار الأساسية:

دعم المنتجات المحلية.

التخطيط لاستخدام أمثل للغذاء، دون أي هدر أو إسراف.

ترشيد استهلاك المياه، وخاصة أثناء الوضوء، وتصويب أي مسبب للهدر.

ترشيد استهلاك الطاقة والتنبه لبصمتنا الكربونية.

توليد كمية أقل من النفايات خاصة النفايات الغذائية. بالإضافة إلى ضرورة دعم وممارسة إعادة التدوير وإعادة الاستخدام.

عدم رمي القمامة في المناطق العامة، كالأماكن التجارية والدينية ومناطق التسوق.

الحد من أو عدم استخدام الأكياس البلاستيكية، وتقليل استخدام الورق والقرطاسية.

إطفاء الأجهزة بعد انتهاء الحاجة منها مثل الأضواء، وأجهزة التكييف، والمراوح، والسخانات، وما إلى ذلك.

استخدام الأجهزة الكهربائية مثل الغسالات والمكواة والمكنسة الكهربائية وغسالات الصحون خارج ساعات الذروة.

استبدال المصابيح العادية بمصابيح أقل استهلاكاً للطاقة وإطفاء الأنوارعند عدم الحاجة لها.

القضاء على عادة استخدام المواد المخصصة لاستعمال مرة واحدة، من صحون وأكواب، الخ. وتجنب استخدام الأوعية المصنوعة من الستايروفوم وأدوات المائدة البلاستيكية.

 

ترجمة: سمر طه

أخصائية في مجال البيئة  ودراسات تقييم الأثر البيئي في الأردن، حاصلة على درجتي الماجيستير في التقييم والمراقبة البيئية والعلوم البيئة وإدارتھا وبكالوريوس في إدارة المياه والبيئة.

رمضان والبيئة… تجربة الشارقة نموذجاً

البيئة من القضايا المهمة في المناشط الرمضانية وتشكل محوراً رئيساً في الأنشطة المجتمعية والمؤسسية، وتكون في مقدمة أولويات الحوار الاجتماعي في المجالس الرمضانية والندوات الفكرية التي يجري تنظيمها ضمن الأنشطة في شهر رمضان، ويجسد ذلك التوجه الفهم المؤسس في تشخيص البعد الاستراتيجي للقضايا البيئية في واقع الحياة المعيشية وفي منظومة الخطط الاقتصادية والتنموية، وتؤكد موقعها المحوري في الاهتمام المجتمعي.

ويدلل الحوار الرمضاني البيئي أيضاً على مستوى الوعي المتصاعد بضرورة تفعيل جهود العمل الموجه لعملية التحديث المتواتر للاستراتيجيات البيئية التي تواكب المتطلبات العصرية في العلاقة مع النظم البيئية ومنهجيات العمل المؤسس لصون توازنها الطبيعي، والعمل أيضاً في تبني الخطط التنموية الرشيدة وغير الضارة بمكونات النظام البيئي، كما يشير ذلك التوجه إلى الوعي المجتمعي إلى ما يمكن أن تسببه الأنشطة والسلوك غير الرشيد في العلاقة مع النظام البيئي في إحداث المخاطر المخلة بالأمن البيئي لكوكب الأرض.

والمجالس الرمضانية تقليد حضاري وثقافة مجتمعية يحرص الناشطون والمهتمون بالشأن البيئي، على الاستفادة من فاعليتها في التأثير على صناعة القرار البيئي السديد والعمل في إطار أنشطتها على تنظيم حلقات الحوار الرمضانية النوعية في معالجة القضايا البيئية بمشاركة المختصين والمسئولين وصناع القرار أيضاً، إلى جانب نشطاء العمل التطوعي البيئي. ويجري في سياق منهجية الحوارات تبصر الحلول والمخارج المنهجية وتقديم المقترحات ذات الأهمية الاستراتيجية في بناء الخطط التنفيذية في الشأن البيئي، والتي تسهم في صناعة البرامج المؤسسة لتعديل السلوك البيئي وإحداث التحول النوعي في منظومة القانون والإدارة البيئية.

النشاط الرمضاني البيئي جهد مجتمعي ورسالة بيئية مهمة في مقوم تكوينها الاستراتيجي، يمكن أن تسهم في وضع أسس موجهة لصياغة ميثاق للعمل البيئي يرتكز على مقومات رصينة في العلاقة مع البيئة، من الطبيعي أن يشكل مرجعاً لمنهجية العمل البيئي، وإحداث التحول النوعي في القرار البيئي، وفي منظومة الخطط البيئية والتنموية، والارتقاء بآلية العمل الإداري والقانوني في الشأن البيئي.

ويمكن من خلال هذه الأنشطة أيضاً، إيصال المرئيات والمقترحات بشأن الطرق المنهجية في معالجة القضايا البيئية بطريقة ميسرة، إلى متخذي القرار البيئي الذين ندرك حرصهم ومتابعتهم لهكذا أنشطة لتبني القرار البيئي الذي يدعم النهج الايجابي للحد من التجاوزات والأنشطة غير الرشيدة، والحفاظ على معالم النظام البيئي وصون مقومات توازنها الطبيعي.

تجربة النشاط البيئي الرمضاني في الشارقة في الفترة من العام 2000 إلى العام 2011 من التجارب النوعية التي تزخر بها الدول الخليجية، ويحسن التوقف عندها وقراءة أسسها المنهجية في طرح ومعالجة القضايا البيئية وتبصر فوائدها في تحريك سواكن الفهم الاجتماعي البيئي، حيث أكّدت حضورها في الحراك البيئي منذ بدء نشاطها ضمن فعاليات القرية التراثية التي جرى تشييدها على بحيرة خالد العام 2000.

التجربة شهدت تطوراً ملموساً بإنشاء هيئة البيئة والمحميات الطبيعية في الشارقة قرية بيئية متداخلة الأنشطة والفعاليات الاجتماعية والثقافية والبيئية ضمن فعاليات مهرجان رمضان الشارقة، وكان للنهج الإداري المرن والممنهج الذي انتهجه رئيس الهيئة سابقاً (عبد العزيز عبدالله المدفع) أثره الفعلي في التفاعل المسئول لفريق عمل التوعية والتثقيف البيئي في بناء خطة نوعية متعددة المناشط الاجتماعية والبيئية. والقرية البيئية من الأنشطة الرمضانية المهمة التي حظيت باهتمام المجتمع وشمل برنامجها المعرض البيئي المتنوع في معارفه ورسائله البيئية والبرنامج الاجتماعي البيئي.

والبرنامج البيئي للمنتدى الفكري من المحاور المهمة والفعلية ضمن خطة مناشط القرية البيئية حيث جرى تنظيم حلقات حوار ناقشت قضايا المخدرات وأثرها على الأمن الاجتماعي، وترشيد الاستهلاك وحماية المستهلك مسئولية مشتركة، والإعلام وحماية المستهلك، والموارد الطبيعية وحقوق الأجيال، والتطوّع والبيئة، والتوعية والتثقيف الصحي، وتسجيل حلقة نموذجية حول الإعلام وقضايا حماية البيئة.

الندوات الفكرية في الشأن البيئي التي جرى تنظيمها تشكل هي الأخرى أحد معالم تجربة الشارقة للنشاط البيئي الرمضاني، وتركت تلك المناشط أثرها الإيجابي في منظومة العمل البيئي والاهتمام باعتماد أبجديات الإدارة البيئية ومواصفات الجودة البيئية التي دخلت ضمن عدد من المؤسسات الصناعية والإنتاجية. كما ترك ذلك الجهد أثره في الارتقاء بالنشاط المدرسي والمؤسسي البيئي.

الشراكة محور رئيس في إنجاز حلقات النقاش الفكري حيث شاركت في فعالياتها مؤسسات القطاع الحكومي والخاص والمجتمع المدني، كما شاركت في حوارات المنتدى الفكري مجموعة متميزة من المختصين في المجال البيئي، وأكاديميون وممثلو القطاع التعليمي والتربوي وكتاب ومثقفون وإعلاميون، إلى جانب نشطاء العمل التطوعي البيئي. وكان لذلك التنوع أثره في إثراء مخرجات الحوار البيئي وتبنّي الرؤى والمقترحات المنهجية الموجهة لبناء الخطط وآليات النشاط الإداري والقانوني والبحثي، وبرامج التوعية وبناء القدرات البيئية، وذلك محصل مهم ينبغي الاستفادة منه وتعميم فوائده في المناشط الرمضانية.

إن ذلك المنجز يتجسد في الرسائل الموجّهة لإحداث التحوّل النوعي في المراجعة البيئية ووضع أسس ممنهجة لبناء استراتيجية بيئية ترتكز على ثوابت الأسس الحديثة للمشروع الدولي البيئي.

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Restocking the Seas around Bahrain through Fish Farming

The marine waters around Bahrain have been showing a decline in fish stock for several decades. But in the first decade of this millenium, restocking has become a routine practice endorsed by the former Public Commission for the Protection of Marine Resources, Environment and Wildlife (now the Supreme Council for the Environment). In recent years, the fishing industry in the Kingdom of Bahrain is starting to really look up with the restocking of the waters from farmed fish.

Requirements of a Fish Farm

Fish farming means growing fish in fixed enclosures (tanks, ponds or cages) exposed to the natural climatic conditions of the environs. As part of aquacultural activities (another term for fish farming), one needs to replenish fish stock preferably before the fish species dwindle to almost extinction. 

The basic requirements for a healthy fish farm address a number of chemistry-related characteristics. There must be good water circulation which is achieved through tidal action resulting in water velocity in the range of 10-60 cm/sec.  The oxygen level needs to be maintained at the optimum level of  >5ppm while salinity level should approach 49,000ppm. Water temperatures vary with the season and with tidal levels. The range, therefore is between 12 oC  at lowest tide in winter up to 37oC in the peak of summer. Fish prefer alkaline water levels. This can vary with fish species. For example, Shim (Bream) prefer the pH level to range within 8.2 -8.5. Wind and wave action should be minimal. This is best achieved by locating fish farms downwind of the dominant wind direction which means off the east coast of the island. GPIC is located on the right side of the island with a relatively sheltered site for the fish farm. (Source: http://www.gpic.com/responcibility/EnvironmentalProjects/40.aspx )

Fishes, such as bream, are released into the fish farm on reaching the juvenile stage (i.e when the body weight is around 70gm). The ideal fish weight, 210gm is achieved over the next 220+ days. Population density is very critical in fish farming with an ideal number of 7 fishes/m3. The fishes are fed a supplemental diet of dry food pellets. The feeding rate is in the range of 3-7% of the fish’s body weight.  So careful monitoring of the fish is really important. This amount of food supplements is spread out over four feedings in one 24-hour period. Feeding amounts can also be influenced by climatic conditions, thermal properties of the water and the current flow rate.

The fishes are monitored and their growth rate and general performance are all recorded. The average fish body weight is assessed every 15 days. It has been observed that the maximum growth rate is achieved when the water temperatures are at 23oC.  

As well as monitoring the fish themselves, the environs must also be kept in check. Submerged physical features need to be kept free of any buildup of rough, sharp materials that could harm or injure the young fish. Too many barnacles growing on a structure could cause the subsurface structures to break off.  The enclosure could be damaged resulting in an opening through which the farmed fish might escape prematurely out into the open ocean.

Farmed fish can easily catch diseases. This typically happens when or if the density of the stock gets too high.  Fish can get a variety of diseases so much care is taken to protect the whole project.

Fishes are harvested using such as a dragnet, sieving or a Gill net.  A dragnet is a seine method of fishing where the net hangs vertically in the water with weights holding the bottom down and floats keeping the top floating.  Gill nets are also vertical nets that trap fish via their gills being caught in the net.

Promising Initiative by GPIC

The Gulf Petrochemical Industries Company (GPIC) fish farming activities began in 1996 with a capacity of 10,000 fish. An area of 625 sq. meter forms part of the natural marine environment surrounding the industrial location, has been turned into a fish farming area. The three main species raised in the farm are Black Sea Bream (Shim), Mullet (Meid) and Rabbit Fish (Saffee).  By 2001, the capacity had increased to 30,000 fish. By 2012, capacity had reached 80,000 fish, and the projection for 2015 is 100,000 fish. (U.N. Global Compact Communication on Progress (UN Global Compact COP) including the food and agricultural principles, GPIC, June, 2015,p51)

The restocking of the surrounding waters has long been carried out by GPIC as part of their CSR initiatives. Each year, the company releases batches of sea bream into the local waters to replenish the fish stocks of the surrounding marine areas.  In August, 2008, 80,000 hamour and 20,000 subaiti bream, weighing between 80-100gm, were released into the sea. Today the capacity of fishes released to restock the surround marine waters stands at 100,000 fishes. (GPIC Sustainability Report, 2014, Building a Greener Future, 156pp). 

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إمكانات توليد الطاقة من مخلفات النخيل

date-palm-biomassيعد تمر النخيل احد المنتجات الزراعية الاساسية في المناطق الجافة و شبه الجافة في العالم خاصة في الشرق الأوسط و شمال افريقيا. يوجد اكثر من 120 مليون شجرة نخيل في العالم تنتج عدة ملايين من الاطنان من التمر كل عام، بالاضافة الي المنتجات الثانوية و التي تشمل عروق النخيل، الأوراق، السيقان، السعف و الليف. يمتلك العالم العربي اكثر من 84 مليون شجرة نخيل و اغلبها في مصر، العراق، المملكة العربية السعودية، ايران، الجزائر، المغرب، تونس و الإمارات العربية المتحدة.

تعتبر مصر اكبر منتج في العالم للتمر حيث بلغ إنتاجها السنوي في عام 2012  1.47مليون طن من التمر و هو ما يمثل حوالي خمس الانتاج العالمي. تمتلك المملكة العربية السعودية اكثر من 23 مليون شجرة نخيل و التي تنتج حوالي مليون طن من التمر في العام. تدر أشجار النخيل كميات هائلة من المخلفات الزراعية في شكل أوراق جافة، سيقان، نوي التمر، بذور، الخ. يمكن لشجرة نخيل واحدة ان تنتج نمطيا ما يقرب من 20 كيلوجرام من الأوراق الجافة سنويا بينما يمثل نوي التمر غالبا 10% من ثمرة التمر. اثبتت بعض الدراسات ان المملكة العربية السعودية وحدها قادرة علي ان تنتج اكثر من 200,000 طن من الكتلة الحيوية لتمر النخيل كل عام. 

يعتبر تمر النخيل من مصادر الطاقة الطبيعية المتجددة لانه يمكن استبدالها في وقت قصير نسبيا. تستغرق شجرة النخيل من 4-8 سنوات حتي تثمر بعد زرعها، ومن 7-10 سنوات حتي يكون حصاد ثمرها اقتصاديا. يتم عادة حرق مخلفات تمر النخيل في مزارع او يتم التخلص منها في مقالب القمامة مما يسبب تلوث بيئي في مناطق انتاج التمر. في بلدان مثل العراق و مصر يستخدم جزء صغير من الكتلة الحيوية للنخيل في انتاج الأعلاف الحيوانية.

الكتلة الحيوية للنخيل تحتوي علي المكونات الاساسية الآتية سليولوز و هيميسليولوز و اللغنين. بالاضافة الي ذلك يحتوي النخيل علي نسبة عالية من المواد الصلبة المتطايرةو نسبة منخفضة من الرطوبة. و بفضل هذه العوامل و المكونات تكون الكتلة الحيوية للنخيل مصدرا ممتازا لإنتاج الطاقة من المخلفات في منطقة الشرق الأوسط و شمال افريقيا. يوجد نطاق واسع من تكنولوجيات حرارية و كيمياء حيوية تستخدم لتحويل الطاقة المختزنة في الكتلة الحيوية للنخيل الي عدة صور مفيدة من الطاقة. وجود نسبة رطوبة منخفضة في تمر النخيل تجعل مخلفاته مناسبة تماما لتكنولوجيا التحويل الحراري و الكيميائي مثل الإحراق و التحويل الي غاز و الانحلال الحراري.

علي الجانب الاخر، وجود نسبة عالية من المواد الصلبة المتطايرة في الكتلة الحيوية للنخيل تدل علي إمكانيتها لإنتاج غاز حيوي في مصانع التهضيم اللاهوائي، و من الممكن بواسطة التهضيم المشارك مع المخلفات الصلبة للصرف الصحي، المخلفات الحيوانية  و النفايات الغذائية. يمكن تحويل المحتوي السليولوزي في مخلفات النخيل الي وقود حيوي (إيثانول حيوي) عن طريق استخدام عملية التخمير. و بالتالي فان وجود أشجار النخيل بوفرة في بلدان مجلس التعاون الخليجي، و علي الأخص المملكة العربية السعودية، يحفز علي تطوير قطاعي الكتلة الحيوية و الوقود الحيوي في المنطقة. 

 

Translated by Maiy Latif and Katie Holland

مي لطيف مهندسة بترول تخرجت من جامعة كالجري الكندية و لها خبرة عالمية في مجال النفط و البيئة. تخصصت مي في تنمية مشروعات تتعلق بحماية البيئة  و السلامة و الصحة و الأمان في مجال النفط من خلال عمليات معالجة مخلفات و نفايات نفطية. تعمل مي في شركة هندسية كندية لها مشاريع في الولايات المتحدة، النرويج، الكويت، السعودية و اندونيسيا. 

Katie Holland graduated from Durham University in 2015 with a degree in Arabic and French, having also studied Persian. Currently working in London, she hopes to develop a career that uses her knowledge of Arabic and the Middle East, alongside pursuing her various interests in the arts. 

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Green Finance in Middle East

Green finance is among the most important enablers that would boost innovation and increase the adoption of green solutions and practices across different industrial sectors. Green finance, which has grown by leaps and bounds in recent years, provides public well-being and social equity while reducing environmental risks and improving ecological integrity.

Middle East is making good progress towards green growth and low-carbon economy. “The latest regional trends highlight the need for green financing mechanisms to support transition to green economy”, said Ruba Al-Zu’bi, CEO of EDAMA. “While green may be the obvious feasible and sustainable approach, access to finance makes it more appealing for small and medium enterprises and to individuals to promptly take the right decision”, she added.

Jordan is one of the earliest proponents of green finance in the Middle East. “Green finance in Jordan is being offered through public channels, such as the Jordan Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund (JREEEF), commercial banks, micro-finance institutions as well as International Financial Institutions”, said Ruba.  “Most of green finance mechanisms are supported by technical assistance, awareness-raising and targeted marketing activities, all ofwhich are crucial to success of green projects”, she said.

In the GCC, the National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD) is gearing up to launch a $500 million green bond, the first in the region. This green bond will provide a boost to renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors, and is expected to catalyze sustainable development projects in the GCC.

National Bank of Abu Dhabi has the distinction of being the first issuer of green bonds in the Middle East

To sum up, green finance will act as a major enabler for local, regional and international financing needs of green projects. The upcoming COP22 in Marrakesh is expected to provide impetus to climate change mitigation and adaptationprojects across the Middle East region. The key to success, according to Ruba Al-Zu’bi, will be market readiness, effective governance frameworks, capacity-building and technology transfer.

أزمه المياه في مصر

تعاني مصر في السنوات الاخيرة من شح شديد في المياه و يعد توزيع المياه غير المتكافئ و اساءه استخدام موارد المياه وتقنيات الري غير الفعاله بعض العوامل الرئيسيه التي تلعب دورا مدمرا للأمن المائي فيالبلاد.

يعد نهر النيل شريان الحياة في مصر حيث  يغطي متطلبا ت الزراعة و الصناعه و هو المصدر الرئيسيلمياه الشرب للسكان. ان ارتفاع معدلات النمو السكاني و التنمية الاقتصادية السريعة  في دول حوض النيل  بالإضافة الى التلوث و التدهور  البيئي آخذُ باستنزاف الموارد المائية في مصر.

 و تواجه مصر   عجزا مائيا يقدر  بسبع بليون متر مكعب سنويا .وفي حقيقة الامر فإن الامم المتحدة قد حذرت من نفاذ المياه في مصر بحلول عام 2025.

دعونا نلقي نظره فاحصه على العوامل الرئيسيه التي تؤثر على الامن المائي في مصر.

الانفجار السكاني

ان العدد السكاني في مصر اّخذ بالتكاثر بمعدل ينذر بالخطر , ولقد زاد بنسبه 41 بالمئه منذ بداية التسعينيات. تشير التقارير الاخيرة من قبل الحكومة الى ان حوالي 4,700   حديثي الولادة تضاف الى عدد السكان كل أسبوع و تشير التوقعات المستقبليه  الى ان عدد السكان سيرتفع من 80 مليون الى 98.7 مليون بحلول عام 2025.

ان الزيادة السكانية السريعة من شأنها ان تضاعف الضغط على الامداد المائي من خلال زيادة الاحتياجات المائية  للاستهلاك المحلي و زيادة استخدام مياه الري  لتلبيه الطلب على الغذاء.

الري غير الفعال

تحصل مصر على نسبه اقل من 80 ملم من الهطول المطري سنويا,وتعد ما نسبته 6 بالمئه من اراضيها فقط صالحا للزراعة وما تبقى فهو صحراء.وهذا بدوره  يؤدي الى الافراط في الري واستخدام تقنيات الري المسرف كالري السطحي ( الري بالغمر) و هي طريقه قديمه للري حيث يتم اغراق القطعة الزراعيه بالمياه.

في الوقت الحالي,فان شبكة الري تستمد بالكامل من سد اسوان العالي و هذا بدوره ينظم اكثر من 18,000 ميل من القنوات الرئيسية و القنوات الفرعيه التي تروي الاراضي الزراعيه المجاوره للنهر. يعد هذا النظام غير فعال , حيث يقدر معدل الفاقد من مياه النيل بفعل التبخر 3 مليارات متر مكعب سنويا . ان من شأن  انخفاض الامداد المائي  ان يقود الى انخفاض الاراضي الصالحة للزراعة و حيث ان قطاع الزراعه يشكل اكبر رب عمل للشباب فان شح المياه يمكن ان يقود الى زيادة معدلات البطالة.

التلوث

 اصبحت المخلفات الزراعية والنفايات الصناعية السائلة  و مياه الصرف الصحي ُتلقى بغير اهتمام في نهر النيل مما يجعلها تدريجيا غير صالحة للاستهلاك البشري. اضف الى ذلك فإن مياه الصرف الصحي القادمة من الاحياء الفقيرة ومناطق عديدة في القاهره اضحت تفرغ في نهر النيل وذلك لنقص  المحطات المعالجة لتلك المياه.

 تلك المخلفات الزراعية عاده ما تحتوي على ملوثات من مبيدات الحشرات و الاعشاب مما يؤثر سلبا على مياه النهر. كذلك النفايات الصناعية السائله غالبا ما تكون شديدة السميه وتحتوي على معادن ثقيلة و التي يمكن ان تتحد مع المواد الصلبه العالقة في مياه الصرف الصحي لتشكل الوحل. كل هذه العوامل مجتمعه معا من شأنها ان تلوث نهر النيل و تنذر بشؤم للأجيال القادمة.

الاضطرابات الاقليميه

تسيطر مصر على غالبيه الموارد المائية المستخرجه من نهر النيل بمقتضى معاهدة الحقبه الاستعمارية التي تضمن حصة  ما نسبته 90 بالمئه من نهر النيل و تمنع الدول المجاوره لها من الحصول ولو على قطره واحده من النيل من دون الحصول على إذنها .وعلى الرغم من ذلك فان هذا لا يمنع  البلدان الواقعه على نهر النيل  مثل بوروندي و اثيوبيا من استغلال الاضطرابات السياسيه التي تعصف بمصر وكسب المزيد من السيطرة على حقوق  النيل. ورغم ان نهر النيل يزود مصر بما نسبته 95 بالمئه من المياه العذبة   فإن فقدان بعض الامدادات المائية يمكن ان يشكل متاعب إضافيه لمصر.

الختام

إن قضيه المياه في مصر تتصاعد بنسبه مثيره للقلق. بحلول عام 2020 ,سوف تستهلك مصر بما يقدَر 20 بالمئه اكثر  من المياه مما كانت عليه. مع فقدان قبضتها على النيل  فان شح المياه في مصر  من شأنه ان يهدد استقرار البلاد و الهيمنة الاقليميه. و هذا يحتم على الحكومة المصريه و جميع السكان التحرك بسرعة وبشكل حاسم للتخفيف من شح المياه  وتطبيق اساليب و تقنيات اكثر فاعليه للمحافظة على المياه و منع تلوثها  ووضع وتطوير خطط من شأنها السيطرة على تلوث المياه وجعل تقنيات الري اكثر فاعليه و كفاءة و ذلك لتجنب وقوع كارثة.

ترجمة

سلام عبدالكريم عبابنه

مهندسه مدنية في شركة المسار المتحده للمقاولات – مهتمه في مجال البيئه و الطاقة المتجدده

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